47 terms

Anthropology Final

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enculturation
process by which child learns his or her culture
human evolution
Reliance on social and cultural adaptation increased during ___.
2.5 million
Human capacity for culture has evolutionary basis that extends back to ___ years ago.
cultural universals
cultural features found in every culture
cultural generalities
features common to several but not all human groups
cultural particularities
features unique to certain culture traditions
subcultures
different symbol- based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups in same complex society
ethnocentrism
tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to apply one's own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures
cultural relativism
behavior in one culture should not be judged by standards of another culture
cultural rights
right of group to preserve its culture, language, and economic base
Indigenous intellectual property rights (IPR)
conservation of each society's core beliefs, knowledge, and practices
diffusion
borrowing of traits between cultures
direct diffusion
borrowing of traits between two adjacent cultures
indirect diffusion
borrowing of traits across one or more intervening cultures or through some long distance medium
acculturation
exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact
independent invention
process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems
Klein
says human creativity dawned suddenly in Europe around 45,000 years ago
White
says early personal adornment in Africa and Middle East shows human creativity capacity existed before AMHs reached Europe
orientation and procreation
Nuclear families consist of family of ___ and ___.
family of orientation
family in which one is born and grows up
family of procreation
family formed when one marries and has children
neolocalality
when married both spouse's move from families households
23%
nuclear families account for ___ of american households
serial monogamy
undergoes several divorces
descent group
permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry
patrilineal descent *more common
people automatically have lifetime membership in father's group
matrilineal descent
people automatically have lifetime membership in mother's group
lineage
descent group whose members can demonstrate common descent from an apical ancestor
clan
descent group whose members claim common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it
totem
nonhuman apical ancestor of a clan
patrilocality
married couples live in the husband's community
matrilocality
married couples live in wife's community
parallel cousins
offspring of a parent's same sex sibling
cross cousins
offspring of a parent's opposite sex sibling
exogamy
practice of seeking spouse outside of one's own group
endogamy
mating or marriage within group to which one belongs
universal
Marriage is a cultural ___.
castes
stratified groups in which lifelong membership is ascribed at birth
exogamous
Castes can be internally subdivided into ___ lineages.
leach
rights allocated by marriage
bridewealth
customary gift before, at, or after the marriage from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin
partilineal
Bridewealth is common in ___ groups.
dowry
marital exchange in which wife's group provides substantial gifts to husband's family
polygyny
man has more than one wife
polyandry
woman has more than one husband
ottoman
Polygamy is leftover from the ___ period.
power
Having many wives in Turkey is a sign of ___.