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Chapter 19: Differential Gene Expression in Development
Terms in this set (33)
What is development?
Process by which a multicellular organism undergoes changes that characterizes its life cycle.
What are the 4 processes of development?
What is the process of determination?
Process by which the fate of the cell is set.
What is the process of differentiation?
Process by which different types of cells arise.
What is the process of morphogenesis?
Process by which differentiated cells are organized and distributed spatially.
What is the process of growth?
Process by which the body size is increased and cells expand.
What causes determination and differentiation to occur?
Differential gene expression.
What are the 3 ways in which morphogesis can occur?
1. Cell division
2. Cell expansion
3. Cell movements
What is cell fate?
The ultimate type of cell a cell will become.
An experiment was conducted in which cells in one location of an embryo were transplanted to a different location on an embryo. It was thought that changing the location of these cells on the embryo would not change what type of cell it was originally determined to become. However, when the cells were relocated, they developed into the cells they were supposed to become. What does this say about cell fate?
Cell fate is not determined, but can change according to the environment.
What does it mean for a zygote to be totipotent?
That it can give rise to every cell type in the body.
Is cell differentiation irreversible?
How did the cloning of sheep demonstrate that cell differentiation is reversible?
1. Cell from sheep to be cloned were starved to arrest them in G1.
2. Egg from another sheep was enucleated.
3. Cell from sheep to be cloned is fused with enucleated egg.
4. Embryo is transplanted into the womb of a sheep.
5. Sheep to be cloned was cloned.
What is genomic equivalence?
Every cell has the same genome.
What are 3 reasons for cloning animals?
1. Increase number of valuable organisms
2. Preserve endangered species
3. Preserve pets
What does it mean for stem cells to be multipotent?
That it can differentiate into a few certain cell types.
What does it mean for blastocyst cells to be pluripotent?
That it retains the ability to form all cells in the body.
What are the 2 ways that pluripotent stem cells can be obtained?
1. By harvesting them from embryos
2. By inducing cells to become pluripotent stem cells
What are the 2 problems with obtaining stem cells by harvesting human embryos conceived by in vitro fertilization?
1. People object the practice because they are human embryos
2. Stem cells could provoke an immune response in patients
What are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS)?
Cells that are pluripotent, but were once already differentiated.
How is gene expression and cell differentiation controlled at the level of transcription in muscle cells?
1. myoD binds to the promoter of the p21 gene in mesoderm cells.
2. p21 is made.
3. p21 binds to cdk.
4. Cell cycle is blocked.
5. Cell becomes differentiated into muscle cells.
What are the 2 ways that one cell can produce so many different cell types?
1. Cytoplasmic segregation
What is cytoplasmic segregation?
Factor that may be unequally distributed in the cytoplasm.
What is induction?
Factor secreted by a cell to induce other cells to become determined.
How did we demonstrate that different regions of in the fertilized egg of a sea urchin have different developmental fates?
One embryo is bisected horizontally. Another is bisected vertically. The top cells from the horizontal bisection remained embryonic. The bottom cells produced abnormal larvae. Both cells from the vertical bisection produced normal larvae.
What are cytoplasmic determinants?
Certain materials whose spatial distribution within a fertilized egg cause polarity.
How does the cytoskeleton contribute to the asymmetric distribution of cytoplasmic determinants in the egg?
Proteins bind to growing positive end of microfilaments and mRNA that encodes a cytoplasmic determinant. As microfilaments grow toward one end of the cell, it unequally distributes the mRNA, which results in the unequal distribution of the proteins it encodes.
Explain the process of induction .
1. Cell produces an inducer.
2. Cells that receive the inducer are caused to transcribe certain genes.
3. Cells that do not receive the inducer do not transcribe those certain genes.
Much of development is controlled by?
What is pattern formation?
Process that results in the spatial organization of tissues.
What is positional information?
When cell fate is determined by where the cell is located.
What is a morphogen?
An inducer that induces cell to be determined.
What are the 2 requirements for a signal to be considered a morphogen?
1. Must directly affect target cells.
2. Different concentrations of the morphogen result in different effects.
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