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Sociology

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According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
Anomie
Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.
Positive sanction
Labeling theory, differential association theory, and control theory all represent the conflict perspective.
False
According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?
In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.
A serial killer has recently been convicted of the charges brought against him. In which state is he MOST likely to receive the death penalty?
Texas
Based on strain theory, there are four deviant models of adaptation and one mode considered to be socially acceptable.
True
The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.
differential association theory
Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.
Inner Control
The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________
Recidivism
The relativity of deviance is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?
symbolic interactionism
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ______
degradation ceremonies
By employing techniques of neutralization, even the most dedicated deviants can view themselves as conformists.
True
Control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop with their respective groups and society.
True
Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?
Conflict Perspective
Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
Stigma
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.
Crimes
Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?
Control Theory
The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?
It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
Because members of the capitalist class have the greatest opportunities for travel and to meet people from various walks of life, their children have a wide field of "eligibles" from which to choose a husband or wife.
False
In 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?
The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased.
In exchange mobility, about the same number of people move up and down the social-class ladder, which results in the overall social-class system showing little change.
True
Jeanann and her two children recently went on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Jeanann and her children will be in poverty ________.
for a year or less
If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of ________ mobility.
Exchange
Poverty is relatively equally distributed in America by state, and between rural and urban settings.
False
The trend in the United States in which MOST poor families are headed by women is called ________.
the feminization of poverty
What are the three variables identified as defining social class?
wealth, power, prestige
What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?
the power elite
When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to ________.
the value of a person's property minus that person's debt, a person's net worth
Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education.
True
Conflict theorists would consider voting as being more of a ritualistic process than a demonstration of people exercising power in a democracy.
True
Politically, the social class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.
Working Class
Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright's model of social class, Ruth would be classified as a(n) ________.
petty bourgeoisie
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate with respect to determining social prestige in modern society?
One's occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige.
What does status inconsistency refer to in relation to social stratification?
Individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class and low on other dimensions.
What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
the South
What is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?
the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women
Slavery as it was practiced in the pre-Civil War South and apartheid as practiced in South Africa are two examples of internal colonialism.
True
What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?
positive prejudice
Discrimination can occur without the awareness of both those doing the discriminating and those being discriminated against.
True
Everyone who shares a respective ethnic identity expresses that identity through the same ethnic work.
False
Research has demonstrated that prejudice can have positive ramifications.
True
Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe ________.
prejudice and discrimination
The process of compartmentalization helps people who engage in genocide to maintain a sense of being good and moral.
True
The United States Census Bureau allows respondents to choose as many races as they wish in describing who they consider themselves to be.
True
When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.
forced assimilation
Which statement is most
accurate regarding the meaning of race?
Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
As described in the text, what are two myths of race?
one race is superior to another; pure races exist
In society, which group has the greatest power, privileges, and social status?
the dominant group
Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George was granted a loan. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ________ against Pedro.
institutional discrimination
Prejudice is an action; discrimination is an attitude.
False
The split labor market and reserve labor force are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective.
False
The group in society made up of the unemployed who can be put to work during times of high production and then laid off when they are no longer needed is called ________.
reserve labor force
Functionalists note the incest taboo serves to avoid role confusion in families.
True
The not-so-empty nest is a phrase that refers to when children ________.
have moved out as young adults, then return to live with their parents
It is still customary in U.S. society for a bride to accept her husband's last name. What is the line of authority this represents?
patriarchy
In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called ________.
Exogamy
John was adopted as an infant by the Smiths, and has always considered them his real family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?
It is his family of orientation.
The rate of divorce among remarried couples is much lower than the rate of divorce among first time marriages.
False
The term family is difficult to define because of the many varieties of family displayed in the world's cultures.
True
The term for children who return to live at home after college is ________.
adultolescents
Which sentence best describes the divorce rate of remarried people without children?
It is about the same as the divorce rate of first marriages.
With the need for independence and greater opportunity, children are leaving home at an earlier age and less likely to return home after they leave.
False
Romantic love and its importance in marriage are
False
Sociologically, a family that consists of a husband, wife and children is called a ________.
Nuclear Family
How has the rate of cohabitation changed over the past 30 years?
It is 12 times more common.
Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsible for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ________.
the gendered division of labor
The rate of divorce among remarried couples is much lower than the rate of divorce among first time marriages.
False
The feeling of sexual attraction and idealization of another is called ________.
romantic love
Conflict theorists see religion as being the means of social change and an instrument to establish a perfect society.
False
Denominations are "brand names" within a major religion.
True
A state religion is referred to as a(n) ________ when the government and religion work together to try to shape society.
Ecclesia
From a symbolic interactionist perspective, what does wearing a cross signify for Christians?
It is a condensed way for the wearer to say, "I am a follower of Jesus Christ."
Karl Marx was an avowed atheist who characterized religion as "the opium of the people."
True
Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?
a new or different religion at odds with the dominant culture and religion
Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess ________.
Charisma
What does the spirit of capitalism refer to, as proposed by Max Weber?
It is a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit.
What was Weber's term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality?
the Protestant ethic
Why can't sociologists empirically study religion?
Religion is a matter of faith that is beyond objective evaluation.
With 54 million members, which denomination has the highest membership in the United States?
Roman Catholic
Denominations are "brand names" within a major religion.
True
Ecclesia and state religions are the same thing.
True
Next week, Abraham and Hazel will attend the bar mitzvah of their nephew. Their nephew's bar mitzvah is an example of a religious ________.
ritual
The word church, as used by Durkheim, is synonymous with the concept of a moral community.
True
What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?
profane
What does the spirit of capitalism refer to, as proposed by Max Weber?
It is a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit.
Human sexuality illustrates how a group's definitions of an act, and not the act itself, determines whether or not it is considered deviant.
True
John desires the best things in life—a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?
An innovator
Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.
the cultural relativity of deviance
The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail.
True
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.
Labeling
The ________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.
Strain
The theory of differential association suggests that people who associate with certain groups receive an "excess of definitions" about either deviance or conformity.
True
According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?
In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.
Because deviance is inevitable, the more important focus is to find ways to protect people from harmful deviant acts, to find ways to tolerate behavior that is not harmful, and to develop a system of fair treatment for deviants.
True
Control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop with their respective groups and society.
True
Functionalists believe deviance has no useful purpose in society and only contributes to social chaos.
False
The chances of receiving the death penalty are greatly affected by geography (where the murder took place), social class, and gender.
True
Sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) used the term stigma to refer to characteristics that discredit people, including violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance.
True
The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?
It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
A person may voluntarily become a minority.
True
As described in the text, what are two myths of race?
one race is superior to another; pure races exist
The 1896 Supreme Court ruling that approved "separate but equal" accommodations for blacks and whites as a reasonable use of state power was ________.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Slavery as it was practiced in the pre-Civil War South and apartheid as practiced in South Africa are two examples of internal colonialism.
True
The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from whites was called
________.
Jim Crow Law
The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during World War II are examples of ________.
direct transfer
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.
ethnicity
n 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?
The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased.
John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty, and must go on welfare. What is the MOST likely cause of John's poverty?
Changes in the social structure are the most likely cause.
Politically, the social class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.
working class
Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education.
True
If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of ________ mobility.
exchange
Jim and Jan are working-class Americans making a combined income of $47,000. Today they won a $125 million lottery. How will this immediately impact their lives?
They will experience anomie.
What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?
raceethnicity
What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?
intergenerational mobility
Which statement regarding the nation's income is MOST accurate?
The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.
Commitment is the essential difference between marriage and cohabitation.
True
How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?
Both the bride and groom are older than at any other time.
Research shows divorced fathers often have little contact with their children.
True
Sociologically, a family that consists of a husband, wife and children is called a ________.
nuclear family
Sociologically, what is a blended family?
A husband or wife brings a child into the new family from a prior relationship.
Sociologists use the term homogamy to refer to the tendency for people who share similar characteristics to marry one another.
True
Which sentence best describes the divorce rate of remarried people without children?
It is about the same as the divorce rate of first marriages.
Which of the following statements is not true about cohabitation trends?
Couples who cohabit before marriage are less likely to get divorced.
Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess ________.
charisma
In state religions, the government and religion work together to try to shape society.
True
Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.
"Religion is ... the opium of the people."
The word church, as used by Durkheim, is synonymous with the concept of a moral community.
True
Because of the objectivity and accuracy of the poverty line concept, most sociologists agree that the concept of poverty is accurately portrayed in America
False
Because of tradition and a reluctance to change, few sons exceed their fathers' positions on the social-class ladder.
False
Conflict theorists would consider voting as being more of a ritualistic process than a demonstration of people exercising power in a democracy.
True
The higher a person's position on the social class ladder, the more likely they will become a victim of crime.
False
What is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?
the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women
Which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of "eligible" marriage partners based on background expectations?
Christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation
Based on the textbook, what are two ways a group becomes a minority?
the expansion of political boundaries and migration
What is another name for multiculturalism?
pluralism
What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?
race
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.
ethnicity
41 states still limit marriage to men and women.
True
Mark and Sally are married, both are working, and they chose not to have children. What classification best fits them?
They are DINKS.
The term family is difficult to define because of the many varieties of family displayed in the world's cultures.
True