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science ch 16 9th grade
Terms in this set (51)
worked for rutherford; discovered the neutron after repeating experiments done by others.
planetary model; discovered the energy levels
discovered the nucleus by passing charged particles through thin gold foil; also concluded positive protons found in nucleus and negative electrons around the outside; nuclear model
discovered the electrons by passing a charged beam of energy through a tube and seeing how it reacted to charged metal plates; plum pudding model
reintroduced the idea of the atom in the early 1800's
3-D regions where electrons reside.
Quantum Model(electron-cloud model);
Did not agree with Democritus and his ideas were forgotten.
Very tiny, but 99.9% of an atom's mass; 2 subatomic particles
Space around nucleus where electrons are most likely to be found; Consists of energy levels with specific numbers of electrons; Mostly empty space; where most of the atom's volume is found
Atomic Mass Unit
What does amu stand for?
What is the charge of an electron?
What is the charge of a proton?
No charge (neutral)
What is the charge of a neutron?
Protons and neutrons
what are made of quarks?
negative charge, mass negligible, location helps to determine the chemical properties
Flavor and color
what are quarks classified by?
Equal to the number of protons in an atom, also it equals the number of electrons in a typical neutral atom
atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons
average atomic mass
the estimated average mass of all the isotopes of a particular element.
equals the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
proton number and = electron number
proton + neutron
mass number - atomic number
92 or above
elements with what atomic number are generally radiative?
who discovered radiation
alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay
list the 3 types of radiation
which radiation is the weakest? strongest?
release of nuclear radiation which are particles,rays, and energy from a radioactive element's unstable nucleus
atoms of a radioactive elements change into another element due to the release of radioactive particles.
decay due to the release of alpha particles; similar to helium nucleus; positive charge
positively charged particles consisting 2 protons and 2 neutrons
small particles released by a neutron breaking apart
high-energy, electromagnetic waves with no mass or charge
proposed that matter was composed of small particles that were not divisible; aristotle did not agree with him
β+ small particle with positive charge
strongest nuclear radiation; Type of nuclear radiation that can pass through several centimeters of lead, and can be very harmful to humans
Type of nuclear radiation that is very penetrating, but can be stopped by thin layers of metal or plastic; negative charge
low levels of naturally occurring radiation
effects of radiation
can cause illness/cancer, can kill healthy cells, can weaken or melt other materials, and can ionize atoms
Quantum Model(electron-cloud model)
What is our current atomic model called? (both names)
Dalton's atomic theory
All matter is composed of invisible and indestructible particles called atoms; Atoms cannot be created or destroyed in chemical reactions; Atoms of the same element have the same mass and atoms of different elements have masses that are different; Elements are made of atoms and compounds contain atoms of different elements
detects electric charge in the air resulting from radiation removing or adding electrons
can measure the amount of radiation
electroscope and geiger counter
two tools used to detect radiation
radioactive isotopes of elements that can be easily detected by instruments. Often used to "trace" the path of an atom.
Radioisotopes tracers, Radiation treatment, Sterilization, some scanning equipment, nuclear weapons
uses of radiation
The time required for half of a radioactive sample to decay, used in radioactive dating
used to destroy tumors and cancerous cells
splitting apart of a nucleus; may produce a chain reaction(the continuous splitting of nuclei); releases a lot of energy; used in nuclear power plants and bombs
joining of 2 nuclei; requires a lot of heat /energy; releases much more energy; difficult to begin, control, or maintain; sun & stars
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