AP Human Geography- Models & theories

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Demographic Transition Model
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Terms in this set (21)
says- a process with 4 steps in which every country moves through, once a country enters a new stage it will not go back to a previous stage.
Stage 1: Low Growth (high CBR&CDR, low NIR)
Stage 2: High Growth (high CBR&NIR, low CDR)(happened due to industrial revolution)ex:Cape Verde, Nicaragua
Stage 3: Moderate Growth(decreasing CBR,CDR,NIR)(happens when people decide to start having less kids) ex:Chile,
Stage 4:Low Growth(CBR=CDR, has ZPG) ex: USA, England, Luxemburg
Stage 5:unofficial stage (low CBR, increasing CDR) ex: Russia
Hearth-1826, Germany, by Johann Heinrich Von Thunen
says- What farmers produce varies upon distance from market
-takes into account cost of tranportation (which governs use of land)
-assumes no natural features (land uniformity)
-model places market in middle surrounded by dairy, then forestry (lumber), then grains and field crops, and lastly ranching and livestock
Hearth-W.W. Rostow, 1950
says- all countries move through 5 steps to development and modernization through selling resources and global participation (productive)
Step 1: Traditional Society:high in agriculture but unproductive and developed
Step 2:Preconditions of Takeoff:development begins with innovative leader who starts to buy technology
Step 3:Takeoff:Same areas start to produce and become productive and bring in $
Step 4:Drive to Maturity: Technology diffuses and workers become more specialized
Step 5:High Mass Consumption: More specialized jobs and become consumers
HDIsays-determines a country's development based on economic, social, and demographic indicators (given in %) economic indicators- GDP per capita Social indicator- Literacy rate Demographic indicator-life expectancyWallerstein World Systems Theorysays-the world economy has a 3 tier structure Core: generates wealth in economy, high levels of education, technology, and salaries(RICH) ex:USA Periphery:generates less wealth in world economy lower level of education, technology, and salaries(POOR) ex:congo Semi-periphery: a buffer zone between Core&periphery both can exist ex: brazil, india, china, mexicoLosch's Location Theorysays- manufacturing plants choose locations where they can maximize profit -can maximize profit when income is higher than the cost to make it ex:fur stores in vail, coHotelling's Location Theorysays-location of an industry cannot be understood w/o references to other industrys of the same kind ex:gas stations are always next to each otherWeber's Location Theorysays- says-manufacturing plants will be where costs are the least ex:cheap labor, maquiladorasLee's Migration TheoryDivides factors causing migrations into two groups of factors, push and pull. The factors are either economic, cultural, or environmental push- things that are unfavorable about the area that one lives in pull-things that attract one to an areaRavenstein's Migration Theorysays-majority of migrants move short distances and if they migrate long distances its' to cities. -urban residents migrate less than inhabitants of rural land. -families migrate less than individuals and men will travel furtherGravity Modelsays-Distance and population size effect receiving and sending countries -people will travel closer than far but large populations send more people. ex:china and india to USMigration Transition Modelsays-countries in stage 1 of DTM have internal migration -most sending countries are in stages 2-3 (international emigration) -most receiving countries are in stages 3-4(int'l immigration)Malthus Theoryclaims-that worlds population is growing much more quickly than earth's food supply (1798)Core-Domain-Sphere Modelsays- a culture is more homogenous and intense in the core