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WHI SOL review

SOL review
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Africa
Where humans emerged
100,000-400,000 years ago
How long ago humans emerged
Paleolithic Age
Old Stone Age
Neolithic Age
New Stone Age
Characteristics of Paleolithic Age
simple tools, fire, lived in clans, oral language, cave art
farming
the discovery that started the Neolthic Age
archaeologists
study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, settlements, fossils, and artifacts
carbon dating
a test archaeologists use to analyze fossils and artifacts
Stonehenge
an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic Age and completed during the Bronze Age
invasion
river valleys provided protection from this
Mesopotamia
Tigris and Euphrates River
Egypt
Nile River
China
Huang He
India
Indus River
Hebrews
these people settled between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River
Phoenicians
these people settled along the Mediterranean coast
pharaohs
Egyptian rulers
Ten Commandments
law code of the Hebrews
Code of Hammurabi
first written law code- "eye for an eye"
polytheism
belief in multiple gods
monotheism
belief in one god
Judaism
first monotheistic religion
Abraham
founder of Judaism
Moses
led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt; received 10 Commandments
Torah
sacred text of Judaism
diaspora
the scattering of the Jewish people
hieroglyphics
writing of the Egyptians
cuneiform
writing of the Sumerians
alphabet
writing of the Phoenicians
Zoroastrianism
religion of the Persians
Persia
largest empire in the world until Alexander conquers it
Characteristics of Persia
Empire that tolerated conquered people, had a bureaucracy, had a road system, practiced Zoroastrianism
Khyber Pass (in Hindu Kush mountains)
How invaders got through the mountains into India
Indus and Ganges
important rivers to Indian civilization
Gupta empire
Golden Age of India
zero, decimal, algebra
mathematical advancements of Gupta Empire
caste system
Rigid caste system (hereditary), which influenced all social interactions and choices of occupations
Aryans
group who brought caste system (and Hinduism) into India
reincarnation
Cycles of rebirth
karma
Future reincarnation based on present (what goes around comes around)
Vedas and Upanishads
Sacred writings of Hinduism
occupation
what the caste system is based on
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths/ Eightfold Path
beliefs of Buddhism
Asoka and his missionaries
spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia.
Great Wall of China
built to protect China
Qin Shi Huangdi
had Great Wall built
dynasties
ruling families that governed China
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese rulers served under this, but only as long as their rule was just.
Silk Roads
facilitated trade and contact between China and other cultures as far away as Rome.
contributions of China
civil service system, paper, porcelain, silk
Confucianism
Respect for elders, Code of politeness which is still used in Chinese society today
Taoism
Humility, Simple life and inner peace, Harmony with nature
Yin/Yang
represent opposites in Taoism/ Confucianism
Asia
where Buddhism is predominately today
India
where both Hinduism and Buddhism began
mountains
caused Greek city states to be separated from each other
Aegean Sea
important sea for Greece
citizens
free adult males in Greece
Monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, democracy
order of Athenian government
monarchy
rule by a king or queen
aristocracy
rule by the elite (rich)
tyrant
someone who takes power by force
democracy
rule by the people
Athens
the first democracy was here
Draco and Solon
Greek tyrants
oligarchy
type of government in Sparta
Sparta
militaristic city state
united Athens and Sparta
significance of Persian War
Persian Wars
wars between Greece and Persia
Peloponnesian War
war between Athens and Sparta; Sparta wins
Delian League
League Athens formed after Persian Wars
Peloponnesian League
league Sparta formed after Persian Wars
Marathon and Salamis
battles during Persian Wars
weakening of Greece
effect of Peloponnesian War
Pericles
extended democracy, rebuilt Athens, Athens experienced a "golden age" under his rule
Aeschylus, Sophocles
Greeks who wrote dramas
Homer
wrote Iliad and Odyssey
Herodotus, Thucydides
Greek historians
Phidias
sculpted Zeus
Archimedes
pi, level, pulley
Hippocrates
father of medicine
Euclid, Pythagoras
Greek mathematicians
Socrates
philosopher who came up with a method of questioning; taught Plato
Plato
wrote The Republic; taught Aristotle
Aristotle
taught Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
Established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India; defeated Persian Empire
Hellenistic Age
Blend of Greek and oriental elements
Phillip of Macedonia
Conquered most of Greece
Alps
protected Rome in the north
Roman gods (mythology)
the planets were named after them
patricians
powerful nobility in Rome
plebeians
the majority of the people in Rome
Twelve Tables
law code of Rome
Punic Wars
wars between Rome and Carthage
Hannibal
General of Carthage who led war elephants across the Alps
Reasons for the fall of Roman Republic
spread of slavery, unemployment, civil war, inflation
1st triumvirate
Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
Augustus
1st Roman Emperor
Pax Romana
200 year period of Roman Peace
Marcus Aurelius
Pax Romana ended with his death
Julius Caesar
Roman dictator who was assassinated on the Ides of March
Paul
helped spread Christianity in Rome
Constantine
emperor who made Christianity legal in Rome
church
the unifying force in Western Europe
Colosseum
where the gladiators fought
aqueducts
brought water into Rome
Latin
language of the Romans
Romance Languages
Latin was the basis for these
Virgil
writer of the Aeneid
Reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire
geographic size, bad economy, moral decay, invasion, mercenaries in the army
Constantine
moved capital of Rome to Byzantium
476
year Rome ceased to have an emperor
Diocletian
divided Rome into two parts
Constantinople
capital of the Byzantine empire
Justinian
built Hagia Sophia, wrote a law code, reconquered former Roman territories
location of Constantinople
distance from Germanic invasions, protection of eastern frontier, crossroads of trade, easily fortified site on a peninsula
Greek and Roman
Byzantine empire preserved these traditions
icons
holy images
schism
split in the church over icons
Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Church
centered in Constantinople, spoke Greek, in the East
Roman Catholic Church
centered in Rome, spoke Latin, in the West
mosaics
artwork in Byzantine Empire
Pope
leader of the Catholic Church
patriarch
leader of the Orthodox Church
cryillic alphabet
alphabet adopted in Russia
Muhammad
founder of Islam
Mecca
holy city of Islam
Allah
Arabic word for God
Quran (Koran)
sacred text of Islam
Five Pillars
faith, prayer, alms, fasting during Ramadan, hajj
Arabic
language of Islam
Sunnis
majority of Muslims, believe anyone could be leader
Shi'ites
minority of Muslims, believe leader had to be descended from Ali
Battle of Tours
turning point for Islam- they were defeated by the Franks
Dome of the Rock
architectural achievement of Islamic civilization in Jerusalem
Roman Catholic Church
unifying force in western Europe after Roman authority declined
Charlemagne
Holy Roman Emperor
fief
land granted to a vassal
serf
peasant bound to the land
manorial system
economic system of the Middle Ages- self sufficient
Franks
major force in Western Europe, won Battle of Tours
Angles and Saxons
settled in England
Magyars
settled in Hungary
Vikings
moved from Scandinavia to Russia
gold and salt
goods traded in West Africa
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
civilizations in West Africa
Axum
Christian civilization in East Africa
spices
traded around Indian Ocean
Buddhism
religion that spread from China to Korea and Japan
Shinto and Buddhism
religions in Japan
archipelago
chain of islands (like Japan)
Shinto
ethnic religion unique to Japan, state religion, worshipping the emperor, importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors
Zimbabwe
located on Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers in southern Africa
Timbuktu
center of trade and learning in Africa
animism and Islam
religion of West African civilizations
Chichen Itza
representative city of Mayas
Mayas
located in Central America and Mexico
Yucatan Peninsula
peninsula of Mayas
city-states governed by a king
government of Mayas
Tenochtitlan
representative city of Aztecs
Aztecs
located in Mexico
Andes Mountains
where the Incas where located
Machu Picchu
representative city of Incas
high altitude agriculture (terracing)
Incan economy was based on this
road system
achievement of Incas
Mayas, Aztecs, Incas
the American civilizations who had pyramids, calendars, and math
William the Conqueror
united most of England
Battle of Hastings
battle between William and Harold
Henry II
started common law
King John
forced to sign Magna Carta
100 Years' War
war between England and France
Parliament
legislative body in England
Hugh Capet
established the French throne in Paris
Joan of Arc
woman who helped unify France by fighting in the 100 Years' War
Ferdinand and Isabella
unified Spain by their marriage; expelled Jews and Muslims
Ivan the Great
threw off the rule of Mongols in Russia
tsar/czar
Russian leaders
Crusades
wars between Muslims and Christians
Ottoman Turks
conquered Byzantine Empire in 1453
Pope Urban
called for the Crusades
Saladin
Muslim leader who took Jerusalem during the Crusades
effects of Crusades
weakened the Popes and nobles, stimulated trade, left a legacy of bitterness between Christians, Muslims, and Jews, weakened Byzantine Empire
Mongols
invaded Russia, China, Muslim states by destroying cities and countryside
Black Death
killed much of the population of Asia and Europe in the late Middle Ages
Impact of the Black Death
decline in population, scarcity of labor, towns freed from fedual obligations, decline of church influence, disruption of trade
Renaissance
"rebirth" that occurred after Middle Ages
Italy
where Renaissance began
The Prince
a modern treatise on government that supported absolute power of the ruler and advised that one should do good if possible, but do evil when necessary
Machiavelli
writer of The Prince
Leonardo da Vinci
painted Mona Lisa and Last Supper
Michelangelo
painted ceiling of Sistine Chapel and sculpted David
Petrarch
humanist who wrote sonnets
humanism
celebration of the individual, stimulated study of Greek and Roman literature and culture
patrons
supporter of the Arts; Medici family
Flanders
where the Northern Renaissance started
movable type printing press
invention that helped to spread ideas
Gutenberg
invented the printing press
Erasmus
wrote The Praise of Folly (called for reform in the church)
Thomas More
wrote Utopia
Praise of Folly
book written by Erasmus that called for reform in the church
Utopia
More's book about an ideal society
The Republic
book written by Plato
Aleppo and Jericho
early cities in the Fertile Crescent studied by archaeologists
Catal Huyuk
city under excavation in Anatolia
Mauryan Empire
spread Buddhism, hospitals, vet clinics, roads
Parthenon
temple in Athens, rebuilt by Pericles after Persian Wars
left Greek weak
significance of Peloponnesian Wars