50 terms

Consumer Behavior: Chapter 15

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Social Influences on Consumer Behavior
1. General sources of influence differ in four key ways.
2. Influence of opinion leaders.
3. Types/characteristics of reference groups.
4. Normative versus informational influence.
Social Influences
". . . information pressures . . . [that have] a strong influence on consumers because the information source is very credible; . . . they have a strong influence simply because the source can communicate information widely."
• examples: Twitter, Facebook
Social Influences: Sources/Characteristics
Marketing Source
Non-marketing source

General, special, reference groups

Normative, informational, positive or negative, verbal or nonverbal
Marketing Source
influence delivered from a marketing agent
Can be delivered via profit mass media (influence by commercial)
Can be delivered personally via sales people, service rep, customer service agent
-advertising, personal selling, spokes person
Non-marketing source
Influence delivered from an entity outside a marketing organization
-friends, family, the media, consumer reports
General Sources of Influence
Marketer-dominated
Non-marketer dominated
Delivered
-Via mass media
-Personally
How do these general sources differ?
Reach
Capacity for two way communication Credibility
Reach
Mass media sources are important to marketers because they reach large consumer audiences
Capacity for two way communication
Vividness of information can relate to increased persuasion
Credibility
Non-marketing sources appear more credible because we do not believe that they have a personal stake in our purchase


-Consumers tend to perceive information delivered through marketing sources as being less credible, more biased, and manipulative.
-Consumers tend to believe people with similar background and those who are close to them.
Marketing Source: Mass Media Delivered
Advertising
Sales Promotions
Publicity
Special Events
Email and websites
Direct Mail
Cell Phone
Non-marketing source: Mass media delivered
News
Critiques/reviews/blogs
Program Content
External Endorsements
Cultural heroes/heroines
Clubs/organizations
Viral communities
Marketing Source: Delivered Personally
Salespeople
Service representatives
Customer service agents
Non-marketing source: Delivered Personally
Family
Friends
Neighbors
Casual acquaintances
Classmates
Coworkers
...
-Use non marketing sources to enhance credibility
-Use personal sources to enhance two way communication
-Use a mix of sources to enhance impact
Opinion Leaders
An individual who acts as an information broker between the mass media and the opinions and behaviors of an individual or group
oThey are regarded as non-marketing sources of influence, a perception that adds to their credibility.
oAre part of a general category of gatekeepers, people who have special influence on power in deciding whether a product or information will be disseminate to a market.
oTheir opinion are generally perceived as unbiased and credible.
oSusan Sarandon is used as an opinion leader in this advertisement for National Kidney Foundation. The organization hopes that she will influence consumers to sign an organ donor card. As a nonmarketing source, she can produce influence because she is seen as unbiased and credible
Characteristics of Opinions Leaders
oTend to learn a lot about products.
oAre heavy users of mass media.
oTend to buy new products when they are first introduced.
oSelf-confident, gregarious, and willing to share product information.
oHave either intrinsic interest in and enjoyment of certain products.
oMight also like the power of having information and sharing information with others.
Gatekeepers
Sources that control the flow of information
Reference Group
A set of people with whom individuals compare themselves for guidance in developing their own attitude, knowledge and/or behaviors
Types of Reference Groups
Aspirational
Associative
Brand community
Dissociative
Primary
Secondary
Formal
Informal
Aspirational Reference group
A group that we admire and desire to be like
Associative Reference Group
A group to which we currently belong
Brand Community
A specialized group of consumers with a structured set of relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use
Dissociative Reference Group
A group we do not want to emulate (match)
Primary reference group
Group with whom we have physical face to face interaction
Secondary reference group
Group with whom we do not have direct contact
Formal reference group
defined structure and a known list of members/requires membership (sororities and frats)
Informal reference group
have less structure and are likely to be based on friendship or interests

(study groups or people you hang out with on the weekends based on interest and friendship)
Characteristics of Reference Groups
Homophily: overall similarity among members
Group Attractiveness
Density: all know one another
Degree of identification
Tie-strength: the extent to which a close, intimate relationship connects people
Normative Influence on Social Influence: Norms
Society's collective decisions about what behavior should be
-Can be explicitly or implicitly defined
EX: getting up our of a seat, it is expected to get up for an elder; weak and old story
Implies consumers will be
-Sanctioned/punished if norms not followed
-Rewarded for performing expected behaviors
How Normative Influence can affect consumer behavior
Brand-choice congruence
Conformity
Compliance
Reactance
Brand Choice Congruence
Purchase of the same brand as members of a group
-North face, Patagonia
Conformity
The tendency to behave in an expected way
-Loafers without socks, go with the flow, spontaneous
Compliance
Doing what the group or social influencer asks
-Deliberate
Reactance
Doing the opposite of what the individual or group wants us to do
-Rebelling
Social-Relational Theory
-the rights and responsibilities of their relationship with group members
-A balance of reciprocal actions with group members
-their relative status and authority
-the value placed on different objects and activities
What affects normative influence strength?
Product characteristics
Consumer characteristics
Group Characteristics-Coercive power: the extent to which the group has the capacity to deliver rewards and sanctions
...
Demonstrate rewards and sanctions for product use/nonuse
Create norms for group behavior
Create conformity pressures
Use compliance techniques
-foot in the door
-door in the face
-even a penny will help
-ask consumers to predict their behavior
-provide freedom of choice
-use expert service providers who are similar to target customers
Informational Influence
The extent to which sources influence consumers simply by providing information
Characteristics affecting strength
Product
Consumer
Group-coercive power
Sources of influence: General influence sources
-Marketer vs. non marketer dominated
-Delivered personally or by mass media
-Differ in reach, capacity for two way communication, credibility
Sources of influence: Special influence sources
Opinion leaders
Market Mavens: A consumer on whom others rely for information about the marketplace in general
Group vs. influence sources
Aspirational
Associative
Dissociative
Group vary in contact, formality, homophily, density, identification, tie strength
Exert Influence
Normative influence--> Can affect brand choice, congruence, conformity, compliance or reactance
-Affected by characteristics of the product, the consumer and the group

Informational Influence-->Affected by characteristics of the product, the consumer and the influencer
...
products are outdated,
1. occasion when a product is consumed can tell how much the consumer is influenced by society 2.happiness depends on what is in society's trend
Valence
Whether information about something is good or bad

more weight given to negative information
Social Influence: Characteristics of Sources
•Similarity
•Expertise/knowledge ability (doctors more than friends)
•Credibility (best friends more than strangers)
•Attractiveness (good guy vs. bad guy)
-Power
Positive outcomes of social influences
•Personal knowledge
•Greater certainty
•Better choices
•Charitable, philanthropic, humanitarian behaviors
•Values consistent with higher social good
Negative outcomes of social influences
•Materialism
•Anorexia/bulimia
•Conspicuous consumption
•Theft
•Drugs
•Smoking
•Alcohol
•Hazing deaths
•Gangs
•Media and violence