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Physics Unit 4 Test
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Flashcards
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Terms in this set (63)
A ball is rolling down a hill at +1.0 space straight m divided by the straight s. The ball is uniformly accelerating at +4.9 m per s squared. What will the ball's velocity be at 4.0 s later?
+2.1 x 10^1 m/s
You turn a corner and see a ball rolling down a hill; it is rolling faster and faster as time goes by. What causes this acceleration?
force of gravity
If an object undergoes constant acceleration, what will be the shape of the position-time graph that shows the object's motion?
quadratic function shape
How long does it take for an acorn to drop from the branch of a tree 10.0 m high and hit the ground, assuming no air resistance? Remember, rest is the initial velocity and it equals 0.0 m/s
1.4 s
To actually life off the ground, a plane must accelerate uniformly from rest to +21.0 m/s for 30 s. If the plane is taking off on a runway which of the following statements is true?
The plan has more than enough distance to take off
Indicates the velocity on a position-time graph
slope
How do you find the instantaneous velocity on a position-time graph?
find the slope of the tangent at any point
On a velocity time graph, when is the object not moving?
at the point which the line crosses the X-axis
the measure of separation between any 2 points or objects
distance
the branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of objects, but not the force that act on those objects
kinematics
motion that repeats itself in equal time intervals
periodic motion
a point from which the position of other objects can be described
reference point
rate of motion, measured as distance divided by the time required to travel that distance
speed
type of motion in an object that results in a change of position from point A to point B
translation
motion from place to place
translation
motion around a point or axis
rotation
repeating motion back and forth
periodic motion
for all movement you must have some ____ to tell whether or not the object has moved
reference point
an ____ or ____ is any piece of matter
object, body
Give an example of translation
a car travels down your street
give an example of rotation
a wheel on a car rotates around the axle
Give an example of periodic motion
the bobbing of an object on a spring
a mathematical depiction of space based on its special framework
cartesian coordinate system
the distance and the direction from a reference point of an object that has undergone motion
displacement
a system that allows us to specify an object's position by comparing it to a defined set of values
frame of reference
a quantity without dimensions, as opposed to a matrix or vector
scalar
a number (rate) with a direction; a quantity that has both magnitude (measurable amount) and direction
vector
all motion is ___
relative
a frame of reference is also used to describe ___
motion
how far an object is from a reference point; distance does not specify direction
distance
Change in position
displacement
a mathematical quantity that specifies only magnitude (how much)
scalar
a mathematical quantity that has both magnitude and direction (often designated by arrows to show direction)
vector
distance is ___ specifying how far
scalar
displacement is a ___
vector
the displacement of an object over time
average velocity
the velocity of an object at one specific instant
instantaneous velocity
rate of motion, measured as distance divided by the time required to travel that distance
speed
the rate at which an object changes position when traveling in a certain direction
velocity
how far something travels in a given interval of time
speed
___ is independent of the path taken
velocity
what are the differences between speed and velocity?
speed depends on total distance traveled while velocity depends on only the displacement, speed is scalar and velocity is vector, speed depends on the path taken and velocity does not
When does the object's average velocity equal its instantaneous velocity?
when the velocity is constant
Any change in an object's speed or direction is a change in that object's ____
velocity
a line where one axis denotes the position of a moving object and the other axis denotes the time it has moved
position time graph
the ration of the vertical change to the horizontal change between 2 points on a graph
slope
a line that touches a curve at one point but does not cross it
tangent
a line graph where one axis denotes the velocity of a moving object and the other axis denotes the time it has moved
velocity time graph
a change in velocity indicates ____
acceleration
On a Position time graph, the _____ is the slope of the curve at any point
instantaneous velocity
On a _____ , the instantaneous velocity corresponds to a single point on the curve
velocity time graph
change in velocity over time
acceleration
the acceleration of an object at one specific instant
instantaneous acceleration
force of acceleration is ___
weight
if a > 0, object's velocity is ____
increasing
if a < 0, object's velocity is ____
decreasing
if a=0, the object is either ____
not moving or moving at constant velocity
Only at ____ is the instantaneous acceleration of a moving body equal to its average acceleration time
constant acceleration
equations used to relate the components of motion, which are position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time
kinematic equations
acceleration at a constant rate, in which the velocity of an object is increasing or decreasing by a constant amount
uniform acceleration
Objects fall at the ____
same rate
Acceleration due to gravity is ____ (9.8 m/s)
constant
falling object is often said to be in ___
free fall
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Verified questions
PHYSICS
A dark fringe in the diffraction pattern of a single slit is located at an angle of $\theta_{A}=34^{\circ}$. With the same light, the same dark fringe formed with another single slit is at an angle of $\theta_{\mathrm{B}}=56^{\circ}$. Find the ratio $W_{\mathrm{A}} / W_{\mathrm{B}}$ of the widths of the two slits.
PHYSICS
A physics professor demonstrates the Doppler effect by tying a 600 Hz sound generator to a 1.0-m-long rope and whirling it around her head in a horizontal circle at 100 rpm. What are the highest and lowest frequencies heard by a student in the classroom?
PHYSICS
One litre of gasoline releases 34 MJ of energy when burned. The eefficiency of a car operating on this gasoline is 40%. The speed of the car is $$ 9.0 \mathrm { ms } ^ { - 1 } $$ when the power developed by the engine is 20 kW. Calculate how many kilometres the car can go with one litre of gasoline when driven at this speed.
PHYSICS
A particle with mass m moving along the x-axis and its quantum state is represented by the following wave function: $$ \Psi(x,t) = \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 0 , & x<0 \\ A ~ x e^{-\alpha x }~ e^{iEt/\hbar} , & x \( \geq \) 0 \end{array}\right. $$ where $\alpha = 2.0 ~ \times 10^{10} ~ \mathrm{m}^{-1}$ (a) Find the normalization constant. (b) Find the probability that the particle can be found on the interval $0 \leq x \leq L$ (c) Find the expectation value of position. (d) Find the expectation value of kinetic energy.
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