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40 terms

World War II and Cold War

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Isolationists
People who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs, opposed the League of Nations
Washington Conference
President Harding hosted conference-US, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan agreed to set limits on the number of warships each nation could build
Kellogg- Briand Pact
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to use war in their dealings with one another
Dawes Plan
1887 law that divided Native American land into private family plots
Fascism
Political philosophy that places the importance of the nation over that of the individual
Stalin
LEader of the Soviet Union from 1924-1953; worked with Roosevelt and Churchill during WWII but afterwards became an aggressive participant in the cold war
Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945), Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust
Axis Powers (WWII)
In WWII, the alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan
Appeasement
Policy of giving in to someone's demands in order to preserve the peace
Pear Harbor
What: U.S. navy base were Pacific Fleet was stationed Where: Hawaii USA Why important: Japan attacked Pacific Fleet and then U.S. got involved in WWII; Japanese launched a surprise air attack, destroying many planes and ships and killing thousands of men. This lead the U.S. to enter the war
Holocaust
Nazi Germany's attempt to murder all European Jews
United Nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security, International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
Zionism
a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine
Warsaw Pact
Military alliance between the Soviet Union and nations of Eastern Europe, formed in 1955
NATO
Alliance between the US, Canada, and Western European nations, formed in 1949
Truman Doctrine
1947 declaration by President Truman that the US would support nations that were being threatened by communism
Marshall Plan
Program of American economic assistance to Western Europe, announced in 1947
Cold War
The state of hostility, without actual warfare, that existed between the US and the Soviet Union after WWII until the collapse of the Soviet Union
Containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
Brinkmanship
Policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
Korean War
Conflict over the future of the Korean peninsula, fought between 1950 and 1953 and ending in a stalemate (situations in which neither side in a conflict is able to gain the advantage)
Genocide
Deliberate murder of an entire people
Winston Churchill
British statesman and leader before and during World War II; powerful speechmaker who rallied Allied morale during the war
he rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out by his own people.
Vichy France
French regime in World War II after the German defeat of France.
D-Day Invasion
D-Day is the code name for the Allied invasion of France on June 6, 1944
Kamikazes
In WWII, a Japanese suicide plane
General MacArthur
US general during the Great Depression, WWII, and Korean War; forced by Truman to resign in 1951
CIA
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest
McCarthyism
unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)
NASA
National Aeronautic Space Administration, Kennedy administration program created to put a man on the moon and put America as one of the front runners in space technology
Albert Einstein
Physicist who fled Nazi persecution and later encouraged President Roosevelt to develop the atomic bomb
Island-hopping
strategy of the Americans to confuse the Japanese
GI Bill
law passed in 1944 that helped returning veterans buy homes and pay for college
Atomic Bomb
Bomb that changed the world, ended WWII in Japan, created a nuclear arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union
Manhattan Project
Secret American program during WWII to develop an atomic bomb
Rosie the Riveter
Term used to symbolize the many women who worked in defense industries during WWII
Japanese Internment Camps
Hostile camps in Japan for US and other opposing soldiers during WWII
Zoot Suit Riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WWII, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
Fair Employment Practices Committee
(FEPC) aimed at insuring morale and maximum use of labor force by preventing employer discrimination against workers because of race or religion. The efforts of this committee laid the foundation for the Civil Rights movement of the 1950's.
Postdam Conference
This is the conference where Stalin, Truman, and Churchill came together to decide how Germany would be administered. Their goals were to establish order, settle peace treaty issues, and deal with the effects of WWII.