Miocene Apes: climbing adaptations, large teethe, thin enamel on teeth, U shaped upper jaw, large brains, projecting muzzle, brow ridges.
Humans: habitual bipedalism, small teeth, thick enamel, horseshoe upper jaw, huge brain, non-projecting muzzle, no brow ridge
"first upright man" - more intelligent and adaptable than homo habilis, skillful hunters, invented more sophsticated tools for digging, scapring, and cutting. first hominids to migrate, first to use fire, first to provide warmth, cook, and frighten away attacking animals. developed the beginning of spoken language, named objects, places, animlas, and plant and exchanged ideas mousterian stone tool tradition, prepared core technology, levallois techniques, small hand axes, various types of scrapers, burines, blades and large projectile points for spears or light darts. stone raw materials are always from local sources. no long distance transport of raw materials. Wood working, hide processing, no indication of bone or antler carving. Use of fire, use of red ochre, possibly collected medicinal herbs and flowers or ritual use. Males and Females stayed apart in order to reduce reproduction. (Middle Paleo), more consistently rounded shaped head (like a baseball), tall vault, vertical forehead; don't have the bun of the football heads of Neandertals, orthognathic face, widest point of the skull is near the top as opposed to the base of the skull, anterior projecting chin, no retro molar space, post cranially-opposite of Neandertals, narrower chest that wasn't quite as deep, slightly taller on average