54 terms

Bio 163; Final Exam, PART 3

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True
T or F. The pancreas can act as both an endocrine and an exocrine gland
False
T or F. The axon carries impulses from other neurons toward the cell body
nucleotides
Hormones cannot be which of the following
a. steroids
b. amino acids
c. nucleotides
d. glycoproteins
synaptic knobs
The cell body of a neuron does not contain which of the following
a. mitochondria
b. lysosomes
c. golgi apparatus
d. synaptic knobs
sensation
Feelings that occur when the brain interprets sensory impulses
a. projection
b. sensitivity
c. sensation
d. adaptation
epinephrine
The adrenal medulla secretes
a. aldosterone
b. cortisol
c. cortisone
d. epinephrine
acetylcholine only
the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system releases which of the neurotransmitters:
a. acetylcholine only
b. norepinphrine only
c. acetylcholine and norepinphrine
in the target cell nucleus
Steroid hormones combine with receptors located
a. in the target cells membrane
b. in the target cell nucleus
c. in the target cell endoplasmic reticulum
d. in the target cell golgi apparatus
oligodendrocyte
Neuroglial cell that forms myelin in the brain and spinal cord
a. schawnn cell
b. oligodendrocyte
c. microglial cell
all of the above
General functions of the nervous system are:
a. sensory
b. motor
c. integrative
d. all of the above
sympathetic
Division of the PNS that has long postganglionic fibers
parasympathetic
Division of the PNS that has long preganglionic fibers that arise from the brain stem and sacral region of the spinal cord
sympathetic
Division of the PNS; preganglionic contains acetylcholine, postganglionic fiber contains norepinephrine
parasympathetic
Division of the PNS; ganglia is closer to the effectors
sympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic; Division of the PNS ganglia are closer to the CNS
parasympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic; Division of the PNS; preganglionic fiber and post ganglionic fiber contain acytylcholine
parasympathetic
Division of the PNS; has short post ganglionic fibers
sympathetic
Division of the PNS; has short preganglionic fibers arising from the thoracid and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
multipolar neuron
neuron having many nerve fibers arising from the cell body (usually one axon and many dendrites)
a. unipolar neuron
b. bipolar neuron
c. multipolar neuron
d. polypolar neuron
synapse
The junction between two communicating neurons
False
T or F: Reflexes are the simplest nerve pathway and generally only involve a sensory neuron and an interneuron
touch and pressure
Meissners corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles are sensitive which of the following
a. touch and pressure
b. temperature and touch
c. pain and pressure
d. light and temperature
mechanoreceptor
the type of receptor that responds to changes in pressure and movement
nerve
A bundle of nerve fibers held together by layers of connective tissue
Glucagen and Insulin
Hormones of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
False
T or F; The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which is involved in skin color
choroid coat, ciliary body, and iris
The middle tunic of the eye consists of
a. cornea and sclera
b. retina and photoreceptors
c. choroid coat, ciliary body, and iris
fovea centralis
The region associated with the sharpest vision
a. macula lutea
b. optic disk
c. fovea centralis
d. choroid coat
False
T or F; At threshold potential, the membrane permeability to sodium does not change in the region of stimulation
calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
Which of the following hormones regulate calcium ion level in the blood
a. calcitonin only
b. glucagon and calcitonin
c. glucagon only
d. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
True
T or F;Cones provide sharp images in the bright light and enable us to see in color
exocrine gland
Gland that secretes products into ducts
dynamic equillebrium
equilibrium that maintains balance when the head and body are suddenly moved or rotated
perilymph
fluid that lies between the membranous and osseous labyrinths
hormone
chemicals that the endocrine system uses to communicate with target cells or organs
hyposthalamus
portion of the brain that maintains homeostasis by regulating a wide variety of visceral activities and by linking the nervous system with the endocrine system
nerve impulse
conducted as action potential is reached at the trigger zone and spreads by a local current flowing down the nerve fiber and adjacent areas of the membrane reach action potential; electrochemical process of depolarization/repolarization along a fiber
sensory adaptation
When sensory receptors become less responsive after constant repeated stimulation
sympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic; Division of the aunotomic nervous system that operates under conditions of stress and emergency
pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
the three meninges surrounding the CNS
a. pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
b. pia mater, alma mater, dura mater
c. middle mater, archnoid mater, interna mater
transmit and amplify vibrations from the external ear to the inner ear
functions of the small bones (incus, malleus, stapes) of the inner ear
a. provide a framework for the tympanic membrane
b. protect and support the structures of the inner ear
c. transmit and amplify vibrations from the external ear to the inner ear
d. increase the force of vibrations to the inner ear
release of tropic hormones from the hypothalamus controls secretion of the anterior pituitary
the control mechanisms for hormonal secretions
a. release of tropic hormones from the hypothalamus controls secretion of the anterior pituitary
b. skeletal system releases certain endocrine glands directly
c. both a and b
oxytocin
the hormone that is not secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
a. thyroid stimulating hormone
b. oxytocin
c. leutinizing hormone
d. growth hormone
chemoreceptors
the receptors for sense of taste and smell are
a. mechanoreceptors
b. chemoreceptors
c. thermoreceptor
d. thermal receptor
microglial cell
neuroglial cell that phagotize bacteria cells and cellular debris
a. schwann cell
b. microglial cell
c. oligodendrocyte
d. none of the above
False
T or F. The nonsteroid hormone directly converts ATP to form cyclic AMP
True
T or F. The auditory tube helps to maintain equal pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane
all of the above
The actions of cortisol include
a. inhibit protein synthesis to increase the levels of circulating amino acids
c. increase the release of fatty acids
d. stimulation of liver cells to synthesize glucose from noncarbohydrates
e. all of the above
aldosterone
mineralcorticord that causes the kidneys to conserve the sodium ions and thus water
a. aldosterone
b. cortisol
c. cortisone
d. epinephrine
False
T or F. When an action potential reaches the synaptic knobs, potassium ions rush inward and in response some synaptic vessels fuse with the membrane and release their contents into the synaptic cleft
unipolar neuron
neuron having a single axon and a single dendrite arising from a short fiber extending from the cell body
a. unipolar neuron
b. bipolar neuron
c. multipolar neuron
False
T or F. The nerve fiber extensions of a neuron include axons and cell bodies
accommodation
Phenomenon that allows the lens to adjust their shape to facilitate focusing
a. refraction
b. accommodation
c. refraction
d. transmission
False
T or F. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord