64 terms

LCC Psych ~ Unit 3

LCC AP psych
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neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
interneurons
neurons withing the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
dendrite
the branching extensions of neuron that receive messages and condect impulses toward the cell body
axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
myelin sheath
the layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon of a neuron
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons that influence whether or not the next neuron will produce a neural impulse
reuptake
the re-absorption of a neurotransmitter by a sending neuron
endorphins
natural opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleaure
nervous sytem
the body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
nerves
bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal mucles
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs and that includes the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body in response to stress
parasympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body after a stressful situation has passed
reflex
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secret hormones into the bloodstream
hormones
chemical messengers that are manufactured in the endocrine glands and get released into the bloodstream to affect other tissues
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glads located just above the kidneys and secret hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) to help arouse the body during times of stress
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland; regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
lesion
the destruction of tissue
electroencephalogram (EEG)
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
CT (computed tomography) scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a cross-section of a body; also called CAT scan
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
a visual display of brain activity that etects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic field and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue to show brain structure
fMRI
a technique for revealing bloodflow, and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans that can show brain function
brainstem
the oldest part and central core of the brain responsible for autonomic survival functions
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls breathing and heartbeat
reticular formation
a nerve networks in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem that directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex
cerebellum
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
limbic system
doughnut-shaped neural system (including hippocampus, amygdala, and hyptholamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives
amygdala
two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus that directs hunger, thirst, and body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system; and is linked to emotion and reward
hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
frontal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
parietal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
occipital lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
temporal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
sensory cortex
area at the front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher mental functions like learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Broca's area
abrain area in the left frontal lobe that controls muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's area
a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression
plasticity
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
neurogenesis
the formation of new neurons
corpus collosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
split brain
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the corpus collosum
consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks in the mind.
environment
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal to the people and things arround us
identical twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg, creating two genetically identical organisms
fraternal twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are two separate organisms genetically, though they share a fetal environment
heritablility
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
interaction
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor depends on the other (ie environment and heredity)