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to begin to grow from an embryo into a mature form


a young plant grown from a seed


a seed-bearing structure


a tree that sheds and regrows its leaves in response to seasonal changes


the lower part of a pistil that produces eggs in ovules

seed plant

a plant that produces seeds


a woody vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or seed


a flowering pant that produces seeds within a fruit


the smaller, male spore


the larger, female spore


the production of two or more kinds of asexual spores


the outer protective covering of an ovule or sporangia


the small opening in the wall of an ovule through which pollen tube enters the ovule


structure in the ovary that contains an embryo sac and develops into a seed after fertilization

pollen grain

the structure that contains the male gametophyte of seed plants


the transfer of pollen to the pistil or ovule

pollen tube

a tube that grows from the pollen grain enters the embryo sac and allows fertilization


the enlarged tip of a flower stalk to which the flower is attached


one of the outermost rings of modified leaves that protect the flower bud


one of the usually brightly colored leaf-shaped parts that make up one of the rings of a flower


the male reproductive of a flower that produces pollen and consists of an anther


the tip of a stamen which contains the pollen sac where pollen grains form


the part of the stamen that supports the anther


the structure where the ovule is


the female reproductive part that produces seeds and consists of an ovary style and stigma, made of one or more fused carpels


the lower part of a pistil that produces eggs in ovules


the slender upper part of the pistil


the expanded apex of a pistil supported by the style the part of the pistil that receives the pollen

embryo sac

the female gametophye that develops from a megaspore

polar nuclei

the haploid nuclei in the embryo sac of a seed plant that fuses with a male gametete to form the triploid cell that develops into the endosperm

tube cell

the cell of a pollen grain that gives rise to the pollen tube

generative cell

the cell that divides mitotically and forms two sperm cells


the sugar containing fluid secreted by flowers to attract birds or insects for pollination

double fertilization

procces by which one of the two sperm nuclei fuses with the egg nucleus and polar nuclei

seed coat

the protective outer covering of a seed


the developing chute above the cotyledons in plant embryoes consits of an epicotyl and young leaves


the portion of the stem of a plant embryo that is between the cotyledons and the first true leaves


the portion of the stem of a plant embryo that is between the cotyledons and the embryotic root


the embryotic or primary root


a scar that marks where the seed was attached to the ovary wall


a sate in which seeds stop growth and development and reduce their metabolism especially respiration

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