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Terms in this set (44)
What are two differences between continental and oceanic crust?
Continental crust is less dense and thicker than oceanic crust
According to your text, a ____ of an event is the product of the probability of that event occurring times the consequences
_____ minerals contain calcium, carbon and oxygen
What are the three compositional layers of the earth?
Rocky crust, rocky mantle, and metallic core
The _____ _____ is the most probably length of time between events of a certain magnitude or size
The plates are made of
Lithosphere (crust and upper mantle)
Which of the following is a source of Earth's internal heat?
In recent decades the number of ______ has been increasing due to increasing global population
The two most common elements int he earth's crust are
Silicon and oxygen
The _______ _______ relation or concept says that the larger the magnitude (size or energy) of an event, the less often it will occur
According to your text, a ________ is when the time, date and size of an event is specified, while a _________ is a range of certainty or probability of an event.
The chance or likelihood of an event of a certain size or magnitude happening in any given year is the _____. It can be calculated using the reciprocal of the recurrence interval
The type of stress at a transform boundary is ____ stress.
The energy for plate tectonic processes, including earthquakes and volcanism, comes from the Sun.
_______ faults are common in divergent plate boundaries (involves tensional stress and seen at oceanic spreading centers and continental rift zones)
The location at the earth's surface directly above the initial rupture point of an earthquake is called the ______
Quakes that occur on a fault before a larger quake may be
Most earthquake damage is due to:
Deformed rock (strain) along a fault stores ________ energy
What is the correct relationship between faults and earthquakes?
Movement along faults causes earthquakes
According to your test, "Great" earthquakes (M9 and above) are most likely to occur at:
Fault rupture that takes place over days to months is known as:
A slow earthquake
The effects of shaking on buildings and felt/observed by people from the basis of a measurement known as ______
Surface waves may have the largest amplitude (and greatest energy) of all seismic aves, yet they may not be detected not eh other side of the earth. Why?
As their name implies, surface waves travel only on the surface and not through the earth
Why must calculations for magnitude correct for distance form the quake to the seismograph?
Magnitude measures the amount of energy released by the quake at the focus, but seismic waves lose energy as they travel and thus you must correct for this lost energy
Can earthquakes be predicted, days or weeks in advanced?
No, it is considered too difficult right now, as precursors that would warn of a quake vary too much and do not always occur
What hazard can result when seismic waves travel through sandy, saturated soils?
Why are logarithmic scales used for earthquake magnitudes?
With a log scale a large range of values can be shown as a simple scale
Every whole number increase on a magnitude scale equals a ____ increase in energy released
People were caught unawares by the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake tsunami due to the lack of a ______ system in the Indian Ocean
The three main mechanisms of melting in the Earth are
Pressure-release melting, flux melting and secondary melting
The three types of magma composition are:
Mafic, intermediate and felsic
Which is more likely to form a tsunami, a thrust fault or a strike-slip fault?
True or False. Tsunami are just like other ocean waves, they just occur during calm weather and are bigger than storm waves.
FALSE!!-- Tsunami have nothing to do with weather and have much longer periods than wind waves, resulting in surges that flow onshore for many minutes
Most tsunami generated by earthquakes arise form megathrust quakes in:
Which of the three common lavas has the lowest viscosity?
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center was established after a deadly tsunami struck ________ without warning in 1946.
Megatsunami with runups to 500 meters can be generated by ____ in confined bodies of water
A tsunami that struck Japan in 1700 has traced to a M9 earthquake in the ______ subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest of the US and Canada
Repeated Strombolian style eruptions will build a______
What is the name of a volcanic mudflow?
What is tephra?
Magma that is thrown through the air which may or may not be mixed with gas
_______ has been actively erupting since 1983
A caldera can form when:
a volcano collapses during a massive Plinian eruption
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