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35 terms

Biology Chapter 33

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Ovary
produces hormones and eggs
Follicle
cluster of cells that surround, protect, and nourish a developing egg cell in an ovary
Oviduct
tube that conveys egg cells away from the ovary toward the uterus; the usual site of fertilization
Uterus
in female mammals, the organ where the young develop before birth
Cervix
neck of the uterus, opening into the vagina
Vagina
part of the female reproductive system that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body; functions as the birth canal and the passageway for menstrual flow
Testis
male reproductive organ that produces sperm and hormones
Scrotum
sac that houses the testes outside the abdomen
Epididymis
long, thin-coiled tube where sperm mature and are stored
Semen
sperm-containing fluid that is released from the penis during ejaculation
Vas deferens
tube that conveys sperm between the epididymis and the urethra
Penis
male reproductive organ; also contains the urethra and functions in eliminating urine from the body
Ovulation
release of a secondary oocyte from an ovarian follicle
Ovum
mature egg cell with a haploid nucleus
Ovarian cycle
cyclic changes that occur in the ovaries
Endometrium
inner lining of the uterus; site of implantation of the embryo
Menstrual cycle
cyclic changes that occur in the uterus
Menstruation
discharge resulting from shedding of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle
Corpus luteum
ovarian structure that forms from a follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen
Fertilization
the fusion of the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell and the nucleus of a haploid egg cell, forming a diploid zygote
Zygote
diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg cell
Blastocyst
stage in human embryonic development; fluid-filled ball of cells that implants in the endometriu
Cleavage
series of rapid mitotic divisions of a zygote
Trophoblast
outer cells of the blastocyst that secrete enzymes that allow implantation
Embryo
stage in human development from the first division of the zygote until about nine weeks after fertilization
Gastrulation
developmental process in which three distinct cell layers form in an embryo: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
Implantation
imbedding of a blastocyst into the endometrium
Placenta
organ that develops inside the uterus and enables the transfer of nutrients, gases, and waste products between the mother and developing baby
Fetus
stage of human development from nine weeks after fertilization until birth
Labor
series of rhythmic contractions of the uterus that expel the baby from the uterus, resulting in birth
Oxytocin
hormone secreted by pituitary gland that stimulates contractions of the uterus
Puberty
stage of human development when reproductive organs become functional and secondary sex characteristics develop
Menopause
point in life when a woman stops ovulating, usually in her 50s
Gynecology
medical specialty that focuses on wellness of the female reproductive system
Urology
medical specialty that focuses on the wellness of the urinary tract in males and females, and also the male reproductive system