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Chapter 4 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (62)
also called covering and lining membranes, include the cutaneous membrane (skin), the mucous membranes, and the serous membranes.
composed of two layers, the superficial (top part) epidermis and the underlying dermis. The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium, whereas, the dermis is mostly dense (fibrous) connective tissue.
mucous membrane (mucosa)
composed of epithelium (the type varies with the site) resting on a loose connective tissue membrane called a lamina propria. This membrane type lines all body cavities that open to the exterior, such as those of the hollow organs of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
serous membrane (serosa)
composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue. This membrane type lines body cavities that are closed to the exterior (except for the dorsal body cavity and joint cavities).(examples are hearts and lungs).
serous layers are separated not by air, but by a scanty amount of thin, clear fluid, which is secreted by both membranes.
The serosa lining lining the abdominal cavity and covering the organs.
the membranes surrounding (serosa) the lungs.
the membranes surrounding (serosa) the heart.
composed of loose areolar connective tissue (soft tissue that cushions and protects the body organs it wraps) and contains no epithelial cells at all. These membranes line the fibrous capsules surrounding joints.
(cutaneous membrane) it keeps water and other precious molecules in the body. It also keeps excess water (and other things) out. It's pliable yet tough.
Integumentary system (integument)
The skin and its appendages (sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails). Simply means "covering." It insulates and cushions deeper body organs and protects the entire body, from mechanical damage (bumps and cuts), chemical damage (acids and bases), thermal damage (heat and cold), ultraviolet (UV), radiation (in sunlight), and microbes.
the outer layer of the skin that is made up of stratified squamous epithelium that's capable of becoming hard and tough.
the underlying layer of skin is made up mostly of dense connective tissue.
subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis)
deep to the dermis is this, which essentially is adipose (fat) tissue. It's not considered part of the skin, but it does anchor the skin to underlying organs and provides a site for nutrient storage. It serves as a shock absorber and insulates the deeper tissues from extreme temperature changes occurring outside the body.
epidermal cells that produce keratin.
the fibrous protein that makes up the epidermis, a tough protective layer in a process called keratinization.
This is the deepest cell layer of the epidermis. It lies closest to the dermis and is connected to it along a wavy border that resembles corrugated cardboard. This basal layer contains the most adequately nourished of the epidermal cells because nutrients diffusing from the dermis reaches them first.
flatter and increasingly keratinized than the stratum basale. (more superficial).
flatter and increasingly keratinized than the stratum spinosum. (more superficial)
as these cells leave the stratum granulosum, they die, forming this cell layer. This epidermal layer isn't present in all skin regions. It occurs only where the skin is hairless and extra thick, like the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
The outermost layer that is 20 to 30 cell layers thick, but it accounts for about three-quarters of the epidermal thickness.
a pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black.
special spider-shaped cells found chiefly in stratum basale that produces melanin.
epidermal dendritic cells
It's scattered in the epidermis. It's important "sentries" that alert and activate immune system cells to a threat such as bacterial or viral invasion.
epidermal-dermal junctions that are seen here and there which are associated with sensory nerve endings and serve as touch receptors called merkel discs.
human herpesvirus 1
produces cold sores.
superficial dermal region. It's uneven and has peglike projections from its superior surface, called dermal papillae.
peglike projection from the superior surface of the papillary layer. It indents the epidermis above. It contains capillary loops, which furnish nutrients to the epidermis.
deepest skin layer. It contains dense irregular connective tissue, as well as blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and deep pressure receptors.
occur in bedridden patients who are not turned regularly or who are dragged or pulled across the bed repeatedly. The weight of the body puts pressure on the skin, especially over bony projections. Because this pressure restricts the blood supply, the skin becomes pale or blanched at pressure points. This can cause small cracks or breaks in the skin.
when hemoglobin (a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood) is poorly oxygenated, both the blood and the skin of light-skinned people appear blue. It's common during heart failure and severe breathing disorder.
they include sweat and oil glands (cutaneous glands), hair and nails. Each of these appendages arises from the epidermis and plays a unique role in maintaining body homeostasis.
cutaneous glands that release their secretions to the skin surface via ducts. They fall into two groups: sebaceous glands and sweat glands. As these glands are formed by the cells of the stratum basale, they push into the deeper skin regions and ultimately reside almost entirely in the dermis.
sebaceous (oil) glands
are found all over the skin, except on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Their ducts usually empty into a hair follicle, but some open directly onto the skin surface.
The product of the sebaceous glands. It's a mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells. It's a lubricant that keeps the skin soft and moist and prevents the hair from becoming brittle. It also contains chemicals that kill bacteria.
when sebaceous gland ducts are blocked by sebum and it appears on the skin surface. It's an active infection of the sebaceous glands.
accumulated material oxidizes and dries, and it darkens.
If the accumulated material doesn't dry or darken.
("fast-flowing sebum"). known as "cradle cap" in infants, is caused by over activity of the sebaceous glands.
sweat glands (sudoriferous glands)
widely distributed in the skin. There are two types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine.
far more numerous and are found all over the body. They produce sweat. Typically, sweat reaches the skin surface via a duct that opens externally as a sweat pore.
a clear secretion that is primarily water plus some salts (sodium chloride) and vitamin C. It reaches the skin surface via a duct that opens externally as a funnel-shaped sweat pore.
largely confined to the auxillary (armpit) and genital areas of the body. They are usually larger than eccrine glands, and their ducts empty into hair follicles. Their secretion contains fatty acids and proteins.
flexible epithelial structure. The part of the hair enclosed in the hair follicle is called the root, and the part projecting from the surface of the scalp or skin is called the shaft.
A hair forms by division of the well-nourished stratum basale epithelial cells in this of the hair bulb at the deep end of the follicle.
are compounded structures. The inner epithelial root sheath is composed of epithelial root sheath is composed of epithelial tissue and forms the hair. The outer fibrous sheath is actually dermal connective tissue. This dermal region supplies blood vessels to the epidermal portion and reinforces it.
The deepest part of the follicle.
small bands of smooth muscle cells. It connects to each side of the hair follicle to the dermal tissue. When these muscles contract (as when we are cold or frightened), the hair is pulled upright, dimpling the skin surface with "goose bumps."
scale like modification of the epidermis.
tissue damage and cell death caused by intense heat, electricity, UV radiation (sunburn), or certain chemicals (such as acids), which denature proteins and causes cell death in the affected areas.
rule of nines
The volume of fluid lost can be estimated indirectly by determining how much of the body surface is burned (extent of burns). This method divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of the total body surface area, plus an additional area surrounding the genitals (the perineum) representing 1% of the body surface area.
(second-degree) superficial depth.
only the superficial epidermis is damaged. The area becomes red and swollen. Except for temporary discomfort, first-degree burns aren't usually serious and generally heal in two to three days. Sunburn without blistering is a first-degree burn.
involve injury to the epidermis and the superficial part of the dermis. The skin is red, painful, and blistered. Because sufficient numbers of epithelial cells are still present, regrowth (regeneration) of the epithelium can occur. Ordinarily, no permanent scars results if care is taken to prevent infection.
destroy both the epidermis and often extend into the subcutaneous tissue, reflecting their categorization as full thickness burns. Blisters are usually present, and the burned area appears blanched (gray-white) or blackened. Because the nerve endings in the area are destroyed, the burned area is not painful. In third-degree burns, skin grafts must be done to cover the underlying exposed tissues.
full-thickness burns, but they extend into deeper tissues, such as bone, muscle, or tendons. These burns appear dry and leather, and they require surgery and grafting to cover exposure tissue. In severe cases, amputation may be required to save the patient's life.
ways to recognize melanoma.
A) Asymmetry- any two sides of the pigmented spot or mole do not match.
B) Border irregularity- the borders of the lesion are not smooth, but exhibit indentations.
C) Color- the pigmented spot contains areas of different colors (black, brown, tan, and sometimes blue or red).
D) Diameter- The lesion is larger than 6 millimeters (nm) in diameter (the size of a pencil eraser).
E) Evolution- One or more of these characteristics (ABCD) is evolving, or changing.
cancer of melanocytes. It accounts for only about 5% of skin cancers, but it is often deadly. It can begin wherever there is pigment, but some develop from pigmented moles. It arises from accumulated DNA damage in a skin cell and usually appears as a spreading brown to black patch that metastasizes rapidly to surrounding lymph and blood vessels. The chance for survival is about 50% and early detection helps.
Epidermis- composed of 5 layers-staring with the most superficial
Appendages of the skin
Why does baldness occur?
Because by age 50 the number of hair follicles has dropped by 1/3 and continues to decline, resulting in hair thinning and some degree of baldness, or alopecia.
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