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66 terms

anat. ch. 28 spermatogenesis-histology

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spermatogenesis
Process by which the seminiferous tubules of the testes produce haploid sperm.
spermatogia
Spermatogenesis begins in the diploid ______ (stem cells)
mitosis
Spermatogia undergo _____ to reserve future stem cells and to develop cells (2nd primary sterpatocytes) for sperm production.
cytoplasmic bridges
The spermatids are connected by __________.
secondary spermatocytes
The diploid primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis I forming haploid ___________.
spermiation
The release of a sperm from its connection to a Sertoli cell is known as _______.
somatic cells
Diploid cells are also known as _______
23
How many pairs of chromosomes are their?
homologous
Each pair of chromosomes is ________ since they contain similar genes in the same order
autosomes
Non-sex chromosomes (22 of them)
x or y
Sex chromosomes are either __________
x chromosomes
Females have two _______
x, y chromosome
Males have an ____ and a smaller _________
gametes
Haploid cells
23
In gametes (haploid cells), their are a single set of chromosomes for a total of _____
meiosis
Gametes are produced by a special type of division: ______
reaching and penetrating
Sperm are adapted for ________ and ________ a secondary oocyte
DNA and acrosome
The head of the sperm contains _______ and ______
mitochondria
Midpiece of sperm contains ________ to form ATP
flagellum, locomotion
The tail of sperm is _________ used for ________
300 million
Sperm are produced at the rate of about __________ per day and, once ejaculated, have a life expectancy of 1-7 days in female.
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands
What are the female organs of reproduction.
ovaries
______ produce 2nd oocytes and hormones
uterine tubes
_________ transport fertilized ova.
uterus
_______ is where fetal development occurs
vulva
Vaginal and external genitalia constitute the _____
mammary glands
__________ produce milk
ovaries
What are the primary sex organs?
eggs and sex hormones
What do ovaries produce?
pelvic cavity, uterus
The ovaries are located in the upper ________, on either side of the _____
ligaments
Ovaries are maintained in position by a series of ________
follicle
Shallow depression of cells that may produce an immature egg
birth
About 1 million primordial follicles remain at ______
500,000
Around _____ eggs remain at the time of puberty.
400-500
_________ eggs will be released by a female during her reproductive life.
oocyte
Immature egg cell
oogenesis
______ is the maturation of the egg
secondary oocyte
Mature egg cell
polar bodies
small nonfunctional cells
sperm
The secondary oocyte will not reach full development ( secondary meiotic division) until penetrated by _______
secondary meiotic division
________________ forms a mature, fertilized egg and a polar body (which disintegrates)
pituitary gland
At puberty, the __________ produces follicle stimulating hormone.
follicle stimulating hormone
______________ causes the ovaries to enlarge and some follicles to begin to mature
reproductive cycle
During a __________ several follicles may start to mature at the same time
ovulation
________ is the release of an egg.
pituitary gland
Ovulation is stimulated by hormones produced in the __________
follicle
During ovulation, the ________ swells eventually burst releasing the oocyte
disintegrates
During ovulation, if the secondary oocyte is not fertilized, it ______
uterine tubes
Narrow, 4-inch tube extends from ovary to uterus - Open near the ovary
fimbriae
The uterine tubes have moving finger-like extensions called ________
infundibulum
Open, funnel-shaped portion near ovary
ampulla
Central region of uterine tubes
isthmus
Narrow portion that joins uterus
mucus and cilia
Uterine tubes contract rhythmically and have _____ and _____ to help move the egg to the uterus
transport ova, fertilization
The uterine tubes _______ from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of __________
mucosa, muscularis, serosa
Layers of the uterine tubes
mucosa
Layer of the uterine tube: ciliated columnar epithelium with secretory cells that provide nutrients
muscularis
Layer of uterine tube that is circular and longitudinal smooth muscle
peristalsis
Helps move ovum down to the uterus
serosa
Outer serous membrane of the uterine tubes
fimbriae
_______ sweep oocyte into tube
cilia and peristalsis
_______ and _________ move oocyte along
ampulla
Sperm reaches oocyte in _____, fertilization occurs within 24 hours after ovulation
zygote
______ reaches uterus about 7 days after ovulation
uterus
An organ the size and shape of an inverted pear that functions in transport of spermatozoa, menstruation, implantation of a fertilized , development of a fetus during pregnancy, and labor
fundus, body, isthmus, cervix
Anatomical subdivisions of the uterus