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anat. ch. 28 spermatogenesis-histology
Process by which the seminiferous tubules of the testes produce haploid sperm.
Spermatogenesis begins in the diploid ______ (stem cells)
Spermatogia undergo _____ to reserve future stem cells and to develop cells (2nd primary sterpatocytes) for sperm production.
The spermatids are connected by __________.
The diploid primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis I forming haploid ___________.
The release of a sperm from its connection to a Sertoli cell is known as _______.
Diploid cells are also known as _______
How many pairs of chromosomes are their?
Each pair of chromosomes is ________ since they contain similar genes in the same order
Non-sex chromosomes (22 of them)
x or y
Sex chromosomes are either __________
Females have two _______
x, y chromosome
Males have an ____ and a smaller _________
In gametes (haploid cells), their are a single set of chromosomes for a total of _____
Gametes are produced by a special type of division: ______
reaching and penetrating
Sperm are adapted for ________ and ________ a secondary oocyte
DNA and acrosome
The head of the sperm contains _______ and ______
Midpiece of sperm contains ________ to form ATP
The tail of sperm is _________ used for ________
Sperm are produced at the rate of about __________ per day and, once ejaculated, have a life expectancy of 1-7 days in female.
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands
What are the female organs of reproduction.
______ produce 2nd oocytes and hormones
_________ transport fertilized ova.
_______ is where fetal development occurs
Vaginal and external genitalia constitute the _____
__________ produce milk
What are the primary sex organs?
eggs and sex hormones
What do ovaries produce?
pelvic cavity, uterus
The ovaries are located in the upper ________, on either side of the _____
Ovaries are maintained in position by a series of ________
Shallow depression of cells that may produce an immature egg
About 1 million primordial follicles remain at ______
Around _____ eggs remain at the time of puberty.
_________ eggs will be released by a female during her reproductive life.
Immature egg cell
______ is the maturation of the egg
Mature egg cell
small nonfunctional cells
The secondary oocyte will not reach full development ( secondary meiotic division) until penetrated by _______
secondary meiotic division
________________ forms a mature, fertilized egg and a polar body (which disintegrates)
At puberty, the __________ produces follicle stimulating hormone.
follicle stimulating hormone
______________ causes the ovaries to enlarge and some follicles to begin to mature
During a __________ several follicles may start to mature at the same time
________ is the release of an egg.
Ovulation is stimulated by hormones produced in the __________
During ovulation, the ________ swells eventually burst releasing the oocyte
During ovulation, if the secondary oocyte is not fertilized, it ______
Narrow, 4-inch tube extends from ovary to uterus - Open near the ovary
The uterine tubes have moving finger-like extensions called ________
Open, funnel-shaped portion near ovary
Central region of uterine tubes
Narrow portion that joins uterus
mucus and cilia
Uterine tubes contract rhythmically and have _____ and _____ to help move the egg to the uterus
transport ova, fertilization
The uterine tubes _______ from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of __________
mucosa, muscularis, serosa
Layers of the uterine tubes
Layer of the uterine tube: ciliated columnar epithelium with secretory cells that provide nutrients
Layer of uterine tube that is circular and longitudinal smooth muscle
Helps move ovum down to the uterus
Outer serous membrane of the uterine tubes
_______ sweep oocyte into tube
cilia and peristalsis
_______ and _________ move oocyte along
Sperm reaches oocyte in _____, fertilization occurs within 24 hours after ovulation
______ reaches uterus about 7 days after ovulation
An organ the size and shape of an inverted pear that functions in transport of spermatozoa, menstruation, implantation of a fertilized , development of a fetus during pregnancy, and labor
fundus, body, isthmus, cervix
Anatomical subdivisions of the uterus