56 terms

Midterm (Units 1-3)

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Africa
Where early humans originated
Hunter- gatherer
Early humans were dependent on wild plants and animals for survival
Neolithic Revolution
The shift from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age (contributed by settled communities and agriculture)
Carbon dating
Method used by archaeologists to date organic artifacts
Stonehenge
Built during the Neolithic age
Egyptian civilization
Located on the Nile River
Mesopotamia
Located on the Tigris and Euphrates River
Means "between the rivers"
Indus Civilization
Located on the Indus River
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
Twin capital cities of the Indus Valley
Very advanced for their time
Chinese Civilization (Shang)
Located on the Huang He River (also called the Yellow River and China's Sorrow)
Cuneiform
Writing system developed by the Sumerians
Ziggurats
Built by the Sumerians to serve their gods
Nile River
Most important geographical feature in Egypt
Great Pyramids
Built in Old Kingdom Egypt as tombs for their pharaohs
Pharaohs
Rulers in Egypt
Hieroglyphics
Writing system in Egypt
Written on papyrus
Indus and Ganges Rivers
Two important rivers to early India
Aryans
Invaded into India and brought the Caste System and the written language, Sanskrit
Chinese Physical Barriers
Himalayan mountains, Gobi Desert, China Sea, jungle
Torah
Sacred text of Judaism
Abraham
Founder of Judaism
Moses
Led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt
Exile
When a person has been forced to leave their home
Ten Commandments
Written laws of conduct and morality of the Hebrews
Hinduism and Buddhism
Religions developed in India
Dharma
Moral duties for Hinduism and Buddhism
Karma
Good or bad deeds of a person for Hinduism and Buddhism
Reincarnation
Rebirth of a soul based on karma for Hinduism and Buddhism
Caste System
Rigid social structure for Hinduism
Siddhatha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path
Major beliefs of Buddhism
Hammurabi's Code
First set of written laws
Alphabet
Created by the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
Colonized around the Mediterranean Sea
Known for being expect sailors, creating the alphabet, and purple dye
Roads
Used by the Persians
Allowed them to rule successfully over a large empire
Zoroastrianism
Religion of the Persians
Mountains and seas
Geography of Greece
Polytheistic
Type of religion the Greeks, Egyptians, and Sumerians had
Monarchy
First stage of Athenian government
Rule by one
Aristocracy
Second stage of Athenian government
Rule by landowners
Tyranny
Third stage of Athenian government
Reformers take power forcefully
Direct Democracy
Fourth stage of Athenian government
Rule by the people
Greek Citizenship
Free, adult men
Solon
Greek tyrant who outlaws debt slavery
Draco
Greek tyrant who codified Greek law
Polis
Greek word for city state
Oligarchy
Spartan government type
Rule by a few
Agora
Greek marketplace in the polis
Located below the acropolis
Persian War
Fought between the Athenians and the Persians over the Greek city-states of Ionia
Importance of Persian War
Greece took back control of Ionia and controlled all of the Aegean Sea
Battle of Marathon
Athenians were outnumbers 3 to 1, but still beat the Persians
Battle of Thermopylae
Athens had the help of Sparta, but the Persians still were able to torch the city of Athens
Battle of Salamis
Fought on water, Athenians destroyed the Persian navy
Delian League
Alliance set up between the Greek city-states after the Persian War
Peloponnesian War
Caused by power tensions between Sparta and Athens
Sparta won
Pericles
Brought in the Golden Age of Athens and extended democracy
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