55 terms

Unit Four: Renaissance & Reformation

STUDY
PLAY
Venice
An Italian city that by 1000 C.E. emerged as a major center of Mediterranean trade.
guilds
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
apprentice
A person who works for another in order to learn a trade
journeyman
Salaried worker who was employed by a guild master while working on their own master piece.
Master Craftsman
Member of a guild in a European Guild System who had reach the top of their skill
Trade Fair
Popular places where merchants would set up booths and sell goods
flying buttress
an arch built on the exterior of a building that transfers some of the weight of the vault
illumination
The artistic decoration of books and manuscripts
Geoffrey Chaucer
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
Dante
Italian poet and Renaissance writer. His greatest work is The Divine Comedy, especially known for his Inferno, his trip through the 9 circles of hell
(1265-1321)
Thomas Aquinas
An Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism.
Summa Theologica
written by Thomas Aquinas...set forth basic church doctrine then proved them using reason and logic.
Scholasticism
A medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
heresy
the crime of holding a belief that goes against established church doctrine
friars
members of religious orders of men who serve the Church through teaching or preaching among the general public
Hundred Years' War
long dispute over French throne between France and England that lasted 116 years
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl who led the French to victory over the English at Orleans in 1429.
War of the Roses
Between Henry VI of the Lancaster family and Edward IV of York for the right to the throne
Henry VII
the first Tudor king of England...brought an end to the War of the Roses
Black Death
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
Renaissance
a rebirth or revival
humanism
A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity
Baldassare Castiglione
Wrote a book called "The Courtier"...describing how the perfect gentlemen and women should act.
Machiavelli
Italian, wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and keep power..."The Prince". Suggested the idea that the ends justify the means.
Galileo
Italian astronomer who wrote that the Earth orbited the sun.
Lorenzo Medici
Ruler of Florence during the Renaissance and patron of artists such as Michelangelo
Leonardo da Vinci
The renaissance artist who is known for his painting The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa
Michelangelo
Painted the Sistine Chapel and created the statue David.
Raphael
Italian painter and architect, his most famous work was the The School of Athens. He is also my favorite Ninja Turtle.
Bramante
Renaissance architect...designed St. Peter's Basilica.
Johannes Gutenberg
German inventor who invented the movable type printing press
Sir Thomas More
English statesman and author; he wrote Utopia, which describes an ideal society
William Shakespeare
Most important figure of English Renaissance literature
Sale of Indulgences
People paying the Church money to absolve their sins and the sins of their loved ones
John Wycliffe
English scholar who argued that the Bible was the final authority for Christian life
Protestant Reformation
Protested the papal abuses; protested indulgences
Ninety-Five Theses
Document that Martin Luther nailed to the church door about the abuses of the church.
Martin Luther
German monk, questioned the Roman Catholic Church, was excommunicated. Wrote the 95 theses
Pope Leo X
pope who sold indulgences from 1515-1517; excommunicated Martin Luther
John Calvin
Protestant reformer who believed in predestination
Predestination
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
King Henry VIII
king and protestant reformer of England, head of the Anglican church...
had 6 wives and broke away from the church for personal reasons bc he wanted a son
Anne Boleyn
married Henry VIII after his marriage with Catherine was annulled.
Queen Mary
Became Queen of England after the death of Edward VI, a devout Catholic, she had thousands of Protestants burned at the stake.
Queen Elizabeth I
other daughter of Henry VIII that took reign after Mary; Protestant, completed the separation with Roman Catholics, firmly establishing the Church of England.
Counter Reformation
catholic reaction to protestant reformation
Jesuits
Roman Catholic society worked for missions and spread the word to indefinite people...founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola in 1534.
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings, forbade the sale of indulgences
Causes of The Reformation
1. Humanist values led people to question church authority .
2. Some clergy were corrupt, worldly, or poorly educated.
3. Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses.
4. The printing press helped spread Reformation ideas.
Effects of the Reformation
1. Many protestant sects developed.
2. Church leaders reformed the Catholic Church.
3. Religious intolerance and anti-Semitism increased.
4. Religious conflicts spread across Europe.
Mona Lisa
Sistine Chapel
School of Athens
Statue of David
Vitruvian Man
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.