An Italian city that by 1000 C.E. emerged as a major center of Mediterranean trade.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
A person who works for another in order to learn a trade
Salaried worker who was employed by a guild master while working on their own master piece.
Member of a guild in a European Guild System who had reach the top of their skill
Popular places where merchants would set up booths and sell goods
an arch built on the exterior of a building that transfers some of the weight of the vault
The artistic decoration of books and manuscripts
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
Italian poet and Renaissance writer. His greatest work is The Divine Comedy, especially known for his Inferno, his trip through the 9 circles of hell (1265-1321)
An Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism.
written by Thomas Aquinas...set forth basic church doctrine then proved them using reason and logic.
A medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
the crime of holding a belief that goes against established church doctrine
members of religious orders of men who serve the Church through teaching or preaching among the general public
War of the Roses
Between Henry VI of the Lancaster family and Edward IV of York for the right to the throne
the first Tudor king of England...brought an end to the War of the Roses
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
a rebirth or revival
A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity
Wrote a book called "The Courtier"...describing how the perfect gentlemen and women should act.
Italian, wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and keep power..."The Prince". Suggested the idea that the ends justify the means.
Italian astronomer who wrote that the Earth orbited the sun.
Ruler of Florence during the Renaissance and patron of artists such as Michelangelo
Leonardo da Vinci
The renaissance artist who is known for his painting The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa
Painted the Sistine Chapel and created the statue David.
Italian painter and architect, his most famous work was the The School of Athens. He is also my favorite Ninja Turtle.
Renaissance architect...designed St. Peter's Basilica.
German inventor who invented the movable type printing press
Sir Thomas More
English statesman and author; he wrote Utopia, which describes an ideal society
Most important figure of English Renaissance literature
Sale of Indulgences
People paying the Church money to absolve their sins and the sins of their loved ones
English scholar who argued that the Bible was the final authority for Christian life
Protested the papal abuses; protested indulgences
Document that Martin Luther nailed to the church door about the abuses of the church.
German monk, questioned the Roman Catholic Church, was excommunicated. Wrote the 95 theses
Pope Leo X
pope who sold indulgences from 1515-1517; excommunicated Martin Luther
Protestant reformer who believed in predestination
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
King Henry VIII
king and protestant reformer of England, head of the Anglican church... had 6 wives and broke away from the church for personal reasons bc he wanted a son
married Henry VIII after his marriage with Catherine was annulled.
Became Queen of England after the death of Edward VI, a devout Catholic, she had thousands of Protestants burned at the stake.
Queen Elizabeth I
other daughter of Henry VIII that took reign after Mary; Protestant, completed the separation with Roman Catholics, firmly establishing the Church of England.
catholic reaction to protestant reformation
Roman Catholic society worked for missions and spread the word to indefinite people...founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola in 1534.
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings, forbade the sale of indulgences
Causes of The Reformation
1. Humanist values led people to question church authority . 2. Some clergy were corrupt, worldly, or poorly educated. 3. Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses. 4. The printing press helped spread Reformation ideas.
Effects of the Reformation
1. Many protestant sects developed. 2. Church leaders reformed the Catholic Church. 3. Religious intolerance and anti-Semitism increased. 4. Religious conflicts spread across Europe.