Create an account
4. "Out of Africa" thesis vs. multiregional thesis
Humans originated from Africa and proliferated vs. originated from Africa but multiple geographical locations first 100 million years
8. foraging societies
Nomadic, small communities and population, no political system, economic distribution is more equal
13. Domestication of plants and animals
Farming system where animals are taken to different locations in order to find fresh pastures
17. irrigation systems
replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops
craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. It requires skill and the use of many different types of tools
22. shifting cultivation
process by which people take an area of land to use for agriculture, only to abandon it a short time later
25. cultural diffusion
spread of ideas and material culture, especially if these occur independently of population movement
27. specialization of labor
specialisation of co-operative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output.
29. metallurgy and metalworking
the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements and their mixtures, which are called alloys. craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures
30. Fertile Crescent
a region in the Middle East incorporating present-day Israel, West Bank, and Lebanon and parts of Jordan, Syria, Iraq and south-eastern Turkey.
the civilization of the Lower Nile Valley, between the First Cataract and the mouths of the Nile Delta, from circa 3300 BC until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation, it is the quintessential example of a hydraulic empire.
34. Egyptian Book of the Dead
common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary texts. Constituted a collection of spells, charms, passwords, numbers and magical formulas for use by the deceased in the afterlife, describing many of the basic tenets of Egyptian mythology. They were intended to guide the dead through the various trials that they would encounter before reaching the underworld. Knowledge of the appropriate spells was considered essential to achieving happiness after death.
system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements.
37. Indus valley civilization
an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra river in what is now Pakistan and western India. The Indus Valley Civilization is also sometimes referred to as the Harappan Civilization of the Indus Valley, in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa
39. the Celts
group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from the British Isles to Gallatia. Went to war with Romans.
40. the Hittites and iron weapons
First to work iron, first to enter Iron Age. controlled central Anatolia, north-western Syria down to Ugarit, and Mesopotamia down to Babylon, lasted from roughly 1680 BC to about 1180 BC. After 1180 BC, the Hittite polity disintegrated into several independent city-states, some of which survived as late as around 700 BC.
41. the Assyrians and cavalry warfare
indigenous people of Mesopotamia and have a history spanning over 6700 years. Started cavalry warfare?
42. The Persian Empire
used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). the Achaemenid Empire that emerged under Cyrus the Great that is usually the earliest to be called "Persian." Successive states in Iran before 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians
43. The Hebrews and monotheism
descendants of biblical Patriarch Eber; were people who lived in the Levant, which was politically Canaan when they first arrived in the area. First monotheistic group; Yahweh.
44. the Phoenicians and the alphabet
enterprising maritime trading culture that spread right across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. First form of language.
46. Greek city-states
region controlled exclusively by Greek, and usually having sovereignty. Ex. Crete
form of government in which policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections or referendums, open to all or most citizens.
48. Persian Wars
a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC.
49. Peloponnesian War
began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth.
shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. In this period the traditional Greek culture was changed by strong Eastern influences, especially Persian, in aspects of religion and government. Cultural centers shifted away from mainland Greece, to Pergamon, Rhodes, Antioch and Alexandria.
legendary early Greek poet and rhapsode traditionally credited with authorship of the major Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey
Along with Plato, he is often considered to be one of the two most influential philosophers in Western thought. He wrote many books about physics, poetry, zoology, logic, government, and biology.
55. Western scientific thought
Systematic apporach of observation, hypothesis formation, hypothesis testing and hypothesis evaluation that forms the basis for modern science.
56. Roman Republic
republican government of the city of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator or, more commonly, 27 BC the year that the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title "Augustus".
58. Punic Wars
series of three wars fought between Rome and the Phoenician city of Carthage. Reason: clash of interests between the expanding Carthaginian and Roman spheres of influence.
59. Julius Caesar
Roman military and political leader. He was instrumental in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Dictator for life.
60. Roman Empire
Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian.
61. Qin, Han, Tang Dynasties
First three dynasties of China that we have recordings of. First of 'centralized' China.
62. Shi Huangdi
king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First Emperor.
63. Chinese tributary system
form of conducting diplomatic and political relations with China before the fall of the Qin Dynasty.
64. the Silk Road
interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel.
65. Nara and Heian Japan
ast division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Nara: agricultural in nature, centered around villages. Most of the villagers followed the Shinto religion, based around the worship of natural and ancestral spirits.
67. Lady Murasaki and "The Tale of Genji
Written by Murasaki. First novel of japanese/world literature.
68. Central Asia and Mongolia
historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. As a result, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia
69. the Aryan invasion of India
Aryans invaded and destroyed Indus River civilization, settled, moved to Ganges River.
people of southern and central India and northern Sri Lanka who speak Dravidian languages, the best known of which are Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.
71. Indian caste system
system was a basically simple division of society into four castes (Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra) arranged in a hierarchy, with the "Untouchable" (Dalit) outcasts below this structure. But socially the caste system was more complicated, with many more castes and sub-castes and other divisions.
73. Constantinople/Byzantine Empire
Made into second capital by Constantine in attempts to help Rome turn its economy around.
r. 527 - 565 CE - Justinian is the Eastern Roman emperor who tried to restore the unity of the old Roman Empire. He issued the most famous compilation of Roman Law. He was unable to maintain a hold in Italy and lost the provinces of north Africa. It was the last effort to restore the Mediterranean unity.
75. early Medieval Europe "Dark Ages"
a period in history between the last emperor of Rome, 475 A.D., and the Renaissance, about 1450 (15th century). Art production during this period was dominated by the Catholic Church.
The social organization created by exchanging grants of lands r fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty and European Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.
Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany (800 C.E). He helped restore some church-based education in western Europe, and the level of intellectual activity began a slow recovering. After death, the empire could not survive.
78. Mohammed and the foundation of Islam
In 610/earlier, he received the first of many revelations: Allah transmitted to him through the angel Gabriel. Believed in the five pillars: (1) "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet." (2) Pray facing the Mecca five times a day. (3) Fast during the month of Ramadan which enhances community solidarity and allowed the faithful to demonstrate their fervor. (4) The zakat, tithe for charity, strengthened community cohesion. (5) The haji, pilgrimage to the holy city Mecca, to worship Allah at the Ka'ba.
79. Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates
Umayyad: Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam. Abbasid: Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam (750 C.E.) A caliph is a political and religious successor to Muhammad.
80. Bantu and their migrations
To the 10th century, the wave reached the east African interior. Bantu-speaking herders in the north and farmers in the south mixed with older populations in the region. Others were moving to the African coast. Thus creating coastal trading ports.
The Coptic (Christians of Egypt) influence spread up the Nile into Nubia (the ancient land of Kush). Muslims attempted to penetrate Nubia and met stiff resistance in the 9th century (left Christian descendants of ancient Kush - left as independent Christian kingdom until 13th century).
Formed by 8th century by exchanging gold from the forests of west Africa for salt/dates from the Sahara or for goods from Mediterranean north Africa. Camels, were introduced tcreating better trade. By 3rd century C.E. it rose to power by taxing the salt and gold exchanged within its borders. 10th century, rulers had converted to Islam and were at its height of power. Almoravid armies invaded Ghana from north Africa (1076), the power was declining despite the kingdom's survival. 13th century, new states rose.
Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico (1200 BCE); featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems.
Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central American contemporary with Teotihuacán; extended over broad religion; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion.
85. Andean societies
developed in the second millennium BCE in the central Andes and the central Pacific coast of South America. While oldest artifacts carbon date around 9750 BCE, evidence of a significant economic surplus begins around 2000 BCE. The Andean civilizations included the urbanized cultures of Chav�n, Moche, Ica-Nazca, Chimu, Tiwanaku, Aymara, Chachapoya, and other Pre-Inca cultures. The semi-urbanized Inca conquered greater Peru in the 15th century. Then, in the 16th century, the European fiefdom of Spain conquered Peru.
86. Mississippian culture
The Mississippian culture was a Mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States in the centuries leading up to European contact. The Mississippian way of life began to develop around 900 A.D. in the Mississippi River Valley (for which it is named). Cultures in the Tennessee River Valley may have also begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. The Mississippian (archaeological) Stage is usually considered to come to a close with the arrival of European contact, although the Mississippian way of life continued among their descendants. There are many regional variants of the Mississippian way of life, which are treated together in this article.
Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American civilization centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States.
88. cultural diffusion versus independent innovation
spread through cultures vs. independent inventing
Political regime where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence).
Republic - state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. Democracy - form of government in which policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections or referendums, open to all or most citizens.
94. slavery vs. serfdom
were not property themselves and could not be sold apart from the land which they worked. Serfdom is the forced labour of serfs, on the fields of the privileged land owners, in return for protection and the right to work on their leased fields.
state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of violent, physical force between combatants or upon civilians.
96. trade routes
sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo.
97. Polynesian migrations
most likely began from the islands of Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, spreading east, south, and north, covering millions of square miles of ocean sparsely dotted with islands.Polynesians migrated throughout the Pacific in sailing canoes, ultimately forming a triangle, whose points are Aotearoa (New Zealand) to the southwest, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to the east, and the Hawaiian Archipelago to the north.
101. the Ten Commandments
list of religious and moral imperatives which, according to the Bible, was spoken by the god YHWH to Moses on Mount Sinai and engraved on two stone tablets.
102. the Torah
refers to the first section of the Tanakh-the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written and Oral Law.
103. the Talmud
of a series of disputations that took place in Europe during the Middle Ages, a group of rabbis were called upon to defend the Talmud. The attacks against Judaism was based on a long held idea that rabbis had "distorted" the Bible through their interpretations, keeping Jews from "adopting" Christianity.
the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac; according to Genesis, God promised to give Abraham's family (the Hebrews) the land of Canaan (the Promised Land); God tested Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son; "Judaism, Christianity, and Islam each has a special claim on Abraham"
106. Moses and the Exodus from Egypt - Passover
Passover to celebrate the day the Jews were led out of Egypt and into their land by Moses.
107. David and Solomon
David - Greatest king of jews. Solomon - wisest king on earth; fell to evilness, turned away from his God.
108. Jewish Diaspora
to the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. The notion of diaspora is commonly accepted to have begun with the Babylonian Captivity in 597 BCE.
109. Vedism (Rig-Veda)
of hymns counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language.
110. Hinduism (Upanishads, Mahabharata, Bhagavad-Gita)
encompasses many religious traditions that widely vary by culture, as well as many diverse beliefs and sects. The estimates of Hinduism's origin vary from 3102 BCE to 1300 BCE, and it is generally regarded as the world's oldest major religion.
111. samsara, karma, dharma
Samsara - transmigration of soul from one body to another, Karma - the law behind reincarnation, Dharma - cosmic ethnics
113. Laws of Manu
work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society, written c.200 in India. It is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or "laws of righteous conduct");
religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama. Originating in India, Buddhism gradually spread throughout Asia to Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Southeast Asia, as well as the East Asian countries of China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand.
115. Four Noble Truths
fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy.
not a place nor a state, it is an absolute truth to be realized, and a person can do so without dying.
set of philosophical teachings and religious practices rooted in a specific metaphysical understanding of the Chinese character Tao. For taoists, Tao could be described as the continuity principle behind the whole process of the constantly changing Universe.
121. Tao-te Chng and the I Ching
The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see chapter below on translating the title) is an ancient Chinese scripture. The work is traditionally said to have been written around 600 BCE by the famous sage called Laozi. oldest of the Chinese classic texts. It describes an ancient system of cosmology and philosophy which is at the heart of Chinese cultural beliefs.
an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius.
record of speeches by Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held.
126. Mandate of Heaven
blessing of Heaven and that if a king ruled unwisely, Heaven would be displeased and would give the Mandate to someone else.
127. Judeo-Christian tradition
body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Christianity and Judaism, and typically considered a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values.
133. Saint Augustine
saint and the pre-eminent Doctor of the Church according to Roman Catholicism, and is considered by Evangelical Protestants to be (together with the Apostle Paul) the theological fountainhead of the Reformation teaching on salvation and grace
134. Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism (Great Schism of 1054)
reflecting its claim to be the preserver of the original Christian traditions as well as those established by the church during the first 1000 years of its existence; maintain a belief that their episcopate can be traced directly back to the Apostles
135. Islam (the Qur'ran)
"the submission to God" is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the world's second largest religion.
The city is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go
139. the Kaaba
building located inside the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah). The mosque has been built around the Kaaba. The Kaaba is the holiest place in Islam.
140. Medina (the Hegira)
Medina is the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. Its importance as a religious site derives from the presence there of the Shrine of the Prophet Mohammad by Masjid al-Nabawi or the Mosque of the Prophet
141. Sunni versus Shiite
Sunnis believe this process was conducted in a fair and proper manner and accept Abu Bakr as a righteous and rightful Caliph. The second major sect, the Shia, believe that the Prophet had appointed his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor years earlier during an announcement at Ghadir Khom.
school of esoteric philosophy in Islam, which is based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. In modern language it might also be referred to as Islamic spirituality or Islamic mysticism.
2. Abu Bakr
(632-634 C.E.) The first caliph; one of Muhammad's earliest followers and closest friends
The 4th caliph; the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad who was meant to be the original successor of Muhammad but was too young. Caused warfare between the Sunnis and Shi'a for not punnishing the murderer of the 3rd caliph, Uthman
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; defeated kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia. Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
6. Battle of Tours
(October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
A powerful city-state formed around the 14th century; was not relatively influence by the Europeans despite coming into contact with the Portuguese'; important commercial and political entity until the 19th century
(18th century) A dynasty in Spain which launced a seiries of reforms aimed at strengthening the state and its economy; influenced Charless III
10. Byzantine Empire
Eastern Half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; capital at Constantinople
12. Carolingian Dynasty
(8-10th century) Royal house of franks that succeeded the Merovingian dynasty; most prominent member was Charlemagne
Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany
15. Charles Martel
Charles the "Hammer"; led the the Battle of Tours and saved Europe from the Islamic expansion. (732 C.E.)
17. Code of Bushido
(Formulated 14th century) Way of the Warrior for Japanese samurais; defined service and conduct appropriate to their status
18. Code of chivalry
Social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages; associated with ideals of knightly virtues, honour and of courtly love; came to known as 'gentlemanly conduct.'
series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims (temporarily succeeded in capturing Jersalem and establishing Christian kingdoms)
warlord rulers of 300 small kingdoms following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate
22. Dome of the Rock
Islamic shrine in Jerusalem; believed to be the site where Muhammed ascended to Heaven
24. Eleanor of Aquitaine
Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII; married Henry II that marriage was annulled and became Queen of England during 1152-1204
25. Emperor Xuanzong
(reigned 713-755) Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty; encouraged overexpansion
marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World
28. Five Pillars of Islam
obligatory religious duties of all Muslims: confession of faith, prayer (5 times a day facing Mecca), fasting during Ramadan, zakat (tax for charity), and the hajj (pilgrimage)
a group of Germanic tribes in the early Christian era; spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire
30. Genghis Khan
(1170s - 1227) from 1206 khagan of all Mongol tribes; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China and territories as far west as the Abbasid regions
31. Golden Horde
one of four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan's death; territory covered much of present south-central Russia
33. Hanseatic League
organization of cities in N. Germany/Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance
any opinions/doctrines at variance with the established or orthodox position; beliefs that reject the orthodox tenets of a religion
35. Holy Roman Empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in central-western Europe (at least, loosely organized/modeled on it)
37. Hundred Years' War
(1337 - 1453) conflict between England and France -fought over lands England possessed in France (issue of feudal rights vs. emerging claims of national states)
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures. Term also used for leader of empire
An investigation; A tribunal formerly held in the Roman Catholic Church and directed at the suppression of heresy
The interval of time between the end of a sovereign's reign and the accession of a successor
Major world religion originating in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula; literally meaning submission; based o prophecy of Muhammad
42. Ivan the Terrible
Ivan IV, confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars(aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture
43. Joan of Arc
A French military leader of the fifteenth century, a national heroine who at the age of seventeen took up arms to establish the rightful king on the French throne. She claimed to have heard God speak to her in voices. These claims eventually led to her trial for heresy and her execution by burning at the stake. Joan of Arc is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Roman emperor 527-565 CE; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire; issued most famous compilation of Roman law
46. King Clovis
Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity C. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom
47. King Hugh Capet
king of France (987-96), first of the Capetians; son of Hugh the Great; he gave away much of his land to secure the dynasty. He spent much of his reign fighting Charles and later became involved in a controversy with the papacy—unsettled at his death—over deposition of the Carolingian archbishop of Reims
48. Kublai Khan
Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile C 100 BCE; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
51. Magna Carta
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy
Country of western Africa; During the Middle Ages, Mali formed a huge territorial empire, noted as a center of Islamic study and as a trade route for gold. Its center was Timbuktu
The district over which a lord had domain and could exercise certain rights and privileges in medieval western Europe
55. Mansa Musa
African King who made pilgrimage to Mecca, and gave out so much gold, that worth of gold dropped rapidly
Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus
61. Middle Ages
The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three 'ages': the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times
Succeeded Mongol Yuan in 1360 lasted till 1644, characterized by great trade expeditions that were withdrawn
Central asian nomadic people; spread all over asia and Europe spreading their empire while pillaging
66. Oral literature
Oral literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word
67. Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions which descend from the Roman Catholic Church
Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King of the Franks; born 714; died at St. Denis, 24 September, 768. He was the son of Charles Martel
72. Pope Innocent III
Supported Otto, believing Otto will give church back power but Otto betrayed and seized church's land and distributed among vassals
74. Prince Shotoku
Important Japanese regent and scholar of the Asuka period... promoted Buddhism and Confucianism, reinstituted embassies to China, and adopted the Chinese calendar and court ranks
75. Queen Isabella
queen of Castile (1474-1504) and of Aragon (1479-1504), ruling the two kingdoms jointly from 1479 with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile). Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by Christopher Columbus
system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system...could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records
dominant medieval philosophical approach... based on the use of logic to resolve theological problems
81. Shogunate (bakufu)
military government in 12th century Japan... established by the Minamoto after the Gempei Wars... retained emperor but real power resided in military government and samurai
Chinese dynasty that united the entire country until 1127 and the southern portion until 1279, during which time northern China was controlled by the Juchen tribes
84. Spanish Inquisition
In the Middle Ages, a judicial procedure that was used to combat heresy... in Spain, authorized by Sixtus IV in 1478; the pope later tried to limit its powers but was opposed by the Spanish crown...the grand inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada was responsible for burning about 2,000 heretics at the stake
85. St. Cyril
a missionary sent by the Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans... converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity...responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic
89. Taika Reforms
attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese- style emperor...also tried to make a professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
94. Thomas Aquinas
Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God
A ruined Mayan city of northern Guatemala. It was the largest of the Mayan cities and may also be the oldest
98. Treaty of Verdun
843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories, the Carolingian Empire, into three kingdoms
members of military elite who received land or benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
103. William the Conqueror
Invaded England, was Duke of Normandie, and created a centralized feudal system
is an Arabic word meaning " striving in the way of God", but it is often translated as "holy war". Refer to an armed struggle fought in the defense of Islam to please Allah
Nomadic Arabs who originally inhabited desert areas of the Middle East and northern Africa and later began to move to other parts of the region
The Medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb. They captured Spain in 700s, and were expelled from Spain in 1492
The Jews whose traditions and culture originate from the Mediteranean, including Spain and Portugal
A type of character representation in which characters do not represent pronunciation alone, but are also related to the component meanings of words
115. Cyrillic alphabet
an alphabet derived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages
116. Hagia Sofia
It is a 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Istanbul; built as a Christian church by Justinian, converted to a mosque in 1453, and made into a museum in the middle of the 20th century
117. woodblock printing
It is a technique for printing used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China sometime between the mid-6th and late 9th centuries
Ornament or surface decoration with intricate curves and flowing lines based on plant forms
an instrument that was used to determine the altitude of objects (like the sun) in the sky. It was first used around 200 BC by astronomers in Greece. The astrolabe was replaced by the sextant
120. Arabic numerals
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Most familiar numeral style (1,2,3, etc.,) used on clock and watch dials
a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere
In architecture and structural engineering, a column is that part of a structure whose purpose is to transmit through compression the weight of the structure
A style of European architecture prevalent from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, with round arches and barrel vaults influenced by Roman architecture and characterized by heavy stone construction
Persian physician, philosopher, and scientist. He was the author of 450 books on a wide range of subjects. Many of these concentrated on philosophy and medicine. He is considered by many to be "the father of modern medicine"
129. Al Razi
A Persian Philosopher who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. (865-925)
130. Al Khwarizmi
Persian scientist, mathematician, astronomer/astrologer, and author. He is often cited as "the father of algebra", which was named after a part of the title of his book, Hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala, along with the algorism number system
131. Omar Khayyam
He was famous during his lifetime as a mathematician and astronomer who calculated how to correct the Persian calendar. he objected to the notion that every particular event and phenomenon was the result of divine intervention; nor did he believe in any Judgement Day or rewards and punishments after life. Instead he supported the view that laws of nature explained all phenomena of observed life
132. Rubaiyat in Persian
Rubaiyat is a common shorthand name for the collection of Persian verses known more formally as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. In fact, rubaiyat (a plural word derived from the arabic root meaning 'four') means "quatrains" in the Persian language
133. Li Tai-Po
Chinese poet living in Tang Dynasty . He is best known for the extravagant imagination and striking Taoist imagery in his poetry, as well as for his great love for liquor. He is said to have drowned in the Yangtze River, having fallen from his boat while drunkenly trying to embrace (the reflection of) the moon
The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho ('right', 'correct') and doxa ('thought', 'teaching'), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. Each is headed by a bishop; most are related to a specific country, as in Serbian, Russian and Greek Orthodox
Person who generally likes to uphold current conditions and oppose changes; religious movement whose position lies between the Orthodox and Reform
Traditions of the prophet Mohammad that played a critical role in Islamic law and rituals; recorded by women
In Christian theology, legalism is belief, stated or supposedly implied, that law, not faith, is the pre-eminent principle of redemption
Religion of early Japanese culture; devotes worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayer made to gods and nature spirits
139. Tao Te Ching
The Way of Changes, a Chinese classic written by Lao Tzu around the 3rd century BC It is the fundamental text of Taoism
140. Thousand and One Nights
Arabian Nights' Entertainment: a collection of folktales in Arabic dating from the 10th century
143. Greek Orthodox Church
The state church of Greece, an autonomous part of the Eastern Orthodox Church
144. Roman Catholic Church
The Christian church characterized by an episcopal hierarchy with the pope as its head and belief in seven sacraments and the authority of tradition
Town on W African coast, wealthy & beautiful town , access to gold (Sofala) and most southern ship stop
winds from the southwest or south that brings heavy rainfall to southern Asia in the summer - method by which Arab merchants travelled
149. Silk Road
number of trade routes from East Asia to Eastern Europe, one of the trade commodities was silk
151. Mali Empire
model of Islamicized (reinforced kingship) Sudanic kingdoms, Malinke merchants traded throughout W Africa
152. Songhay Empire
successor to Mali empire, fusion of Islam, pagan, took over Niger valley, dominant in area until Muslims with muskets
160. footbinding as metaphor
The societal restrictions imposed upon women as families became wealthier, women status lowered
The interval of time between the end of a sovereign's reign and the accession of a successor
163. puppet emperor
Emperor with no real power. In Japan, the shogun (who acted in the name of the emperor) had all the major power
A military commander exercising civil power in a region, whether in nominal allegiance to the national government or in defiance of it
Prophet who spread the Islamic religion. Born in 570, received revelations from Allah in 610, before passing away in 630
The fourth caliph or successor of Muhammad. He was also the Prophet's cousin. He is revered by Shi'a Muslims as the rightful first caliph
171. Yuan dynasty
1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty. Period of Kublai Kahn and the Mongols dominance over China
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders. Played major roles in the Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
175. movable type
invented in China in the mid-eleventh century. Individual characters made of fired clay were assembled and glued onto a plate to create a printing block. Introduced in Europe in the 15th century
176. landscape painting
Popular artistic style in China during the Tang-Song era. Previously popular Buddhist themes are pushed away by the new scholar-gentry classes interest in nature's beauty
179. Prince Shotoku
Prince of Japan. When young, received Buddhist influences from relatives that were affected by Paekche and Kokuryo Buddhisms. Established an official rank system (based on Chinese and Korean official rank system) and a constitution (stressed the acceptable behaviors of the people) and spread Buddhism around Japan
180. Yamato clan
Gained control of the nation over other rival clans around 400 CE. Established an imperial court similar to that of China in 700 CE
181. compatibility of Chinese values
Both Confucianism and Daoism co-existed and were patronized side by side, C providing guidelines, and D satifying spiritual need
182. sedentary agriculture
Where farming occurs in one place, repeatedly, opposed to shifting cultivation
183. shifting cultivation
When farming occurs over several patches of land, rotatingly so that nutrients of the soil will not be depleted
Organization of rural economy and society by three classes of manors: a lord's own land, serf holdings, and free peasant land
190. reciprocal relationship
System where both parties benefit - such as feudalism in Europe - protection for labor
195. jury system
Judgment whereby there is a trial and people witnessing the trial deciding the guilt/innocence of a person
197. Magna Carta
Nobles fed up with King John made him sign Great Charter (Magna Carta) that made sure king got approval of aristocracy before imposing taxes, etc, limited king's power
Beginning in England with a House of lords (aristocracy) and House of Commons (rich merchants) governing legislative body
200. Hugh Capets
After the death of Louis, the son of Hugh the Great, Hugh Capet, requested the crown of France from the archbishop of Reims and the upper nobility
"Lion prince"; member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died in 1260
Port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River
203. Louis IX
Louis IX or Saint Louis,1214-70, king of France (1226-70), son and successor of Louis VIII
Cultural and political movement in Western Europe; began in Italy 1400 CE, rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; combined art and literature with more secular views
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal abstract form of government abstract principles
Conservative Roman senator; stoic philosopher; one of the greatest orators of his day; killed in reaction to assassination of Julius Caesar
focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular to the study of ancient languages
dominant medieval philosophy approach; base in the schools and universities; use of logic to resolve theological problems
211. Byzantine Empire
Easter half of the Roman Empire following collapse of western half of the old empire; retained Mediterranean culture; capital at Constantinople
212. iconoclastic controversy
religious controversy with the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons
Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion
In France, Avignon's architecture is marked by papal history. Where the Palace of the Popes was built in the 14th century
religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs
The Catholic Reformation or the Counter-Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor; conqueror of the Lombards and Saxons (742-814)
218. Eleanor of Aquitaine
queen of France as the wife of Louis VII; that marriage was annulled in 1152 and she then married Henry II and became Queen of England (1122-1204)
A culture originating in Scandinavia (now Norway, Denmark and Sweden) around the mid-8th century AD The Vikings were fierce conquerors, brave explorers, and skilled craftspeople; they invaded and settled countries throughout Western Europe
221. Code of chivalry
The collective term for the social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages. It was based on brave, courteous and honourable behaviour - what came to be known as 'gentlemanly conduct.'
222. Code of the samurai
Also called bushi-do, which literally means "road of the warrior."; Based on principles of loyalty, courage and honor
223. Demesne land
The part of the lord's manorial lands reserved for his own use and not allocated to his serfs or freeholder tenants. Serfs worked the demesne for a specified numbers of days a week
Western European trade associations, grew strongly in the 12th and 13th centuries to protect and promote trade groups
225. Gothic architecture
A style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches
226. Hanseatic League
a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas; formed in 1241 and most influential in the 14th century when it included over 100 towns and functioned as an independent political power; the last official assembly was held in 1669
Hundred Years War
(1337-1453) Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
A prohibition by the pope that can deprive individual persons, groups, communities and even nations of all priestly ministry. Thus, they no longer had access to the sacraments of the church
An investigation or inquiry of an official or judicial nature; in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Catholic church conducted rigorous tribunals of Inquisition to identify and suppress heresy and punish heretics. These were especially severe in Spain with the inquisition of Jews in the late- 15th century
230. Monasticism, importance of
Monasticism is the ancient style of vowed religious life which typically includes community, prayer, common worship, silence, and labour. It is governed by a monastic rule, or way of life, which involves a choice to live apart from society and the world, and so to witness in a radical way to Jesus Christ
234. Russian Orthodox Church
conservative branch of Christianity that developed in Russia with Byyzantine cue
235. Perspective in art
development in the Renaissance that included realistic three-dimensional perspective
one of a class of feudal serfs, that held legal status of freedom in dealings with ppl except their lord
237. Seljuk Turks
major branch of the Oghuz turks, ruled parts of central asia and middle east (11-14 centuries)
238. Ottoman Turks
ethnic subdivision of Turkish ppl, who dominated ruling class of the ottoman empire
series of military campaigns, where roman catholics tried to capture "holy land" from muslims, some were in Europe
term used to describe 400 diff enthnic groups in Africa, Cameroon to south Africa, which were untied by a common language (Bantu languages)
country where Bantu ppl began migrating into, linked to the establishment of trade ties with muslim merchants on Indian ocean (bout 10th century) trading natural resources such as gold, ivory, copper for cloth and glass
name applied to the Turkic ppl of eastern Europe and central asia, derived from Ta-ta a Mongolian tribe that inhabited present northeast Mongolia in 5th centrury AD
245. Genghis Khan
successful military leader, united mongol tribes, was the founder of the mongol empire (1206-1368)
nomadic Turkic people from central asia, many converted to Judaism, basically wandering people, allies of Byzantine empire and sassanid empire
252. Balkan Peninsula
geographic name used to describe southern Europe, as it was surrounded by the Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean...seas from southwest , south and southeast
254. bubonic plague
A highly contagious disease, that was fatal and otherwise known as the disease spread in Asia and Europe in 1347-1351 by the Chinese and Mongols
255. Black Death
Also known as the Black Plague that wiped out approximately 25 million people in Europe, or 25% of it's population
a narrow strait separating European and Asian Turkey and joining the Black Sea with the Marmara Sea; also an important trade route
known as the strip from Mexico to Midwestern United States and Canada, where the native Americans have inhabited over time
a member of a Nahuatl-speaking people of central and southern Mexico whose empire flourished from the 10th century under invasion by the Aztes in the 12th Century
A god of the Toltecs and Aztecs, one of the manifestation of the sun god Tezcatlipoca and represented as a plumed serpent
the higher class people of the native American societies, that controlled the government along with the grand leader
in Mississippi region of N. America, civilizations found that created moundlike temples of dirt
A solid figure with a polygonal base and triangular faces that meet a common point, a religious burial temple
A member of the group of Quechuan peoples of highland Peru who established an empire from northern Ecuador to central Chile before the Spanish conquest
A record-keeping device of the Inca empire consisting of a series of variously colored strings attached to a base rope and knotted so as to encode information, used especially for accounting purposes
The sacrificing to the gods or the offering and payments to the leaders and/or owners of the land
273. Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer who defeated the Aztec Empire and brought most of Mexico under Spanish control
Japanese warrior leaders tasked with law and order, public infrastructure, tax collection, and organizing an army
287. Gempei Wars
five year war fought between two of Japan's powerful families, the Taira and the Minamoto
formal recognition of the Chinese emperor's authority, where representatives from tribute states would present gifts and engage in a formal bowing ceremony
a response by the Confucians to the dominance of the Daoists and Buddhists, severe Confucianism
ritual suicide/disembowelment in Japan (hara-kiri); demonstrating courage and restoring family honor
293. Battle of Tours
(October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
294. Five Pillars
religious duties of Muslims (confession of faith, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, hajj)
living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
298. People of the Book
(dhimmi) Christians and Jews who shared the Bible with Muslims, could be taxed by Muslims
The act or formal ceremony of conferring the authority and symbols of a high office (there was investiture controversy - who got to do it)
307. Middle Ages
Time period between the postclassical era and the renaissance. Consists of Dark Ages and the High Middle Ages, in which the latter saw an improvement in trade, economy, and lives of peasants.
309. age grade
a social category based on age, within a series of such categories, through which individuals pass over the course of their lives. This is in contrast to an age set, to which individuals remain permanently attached as the set itself becomes progressively more senior.
a large language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia.
a small, highly maneuverable, three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century
West African poet, praise singer, and wandering musician, considered a repository of oral tradition
a legendary typhoon said to have saved Japan from a Mongol invasion fleet in 1281. In Japanese, the word "kamikaze" is used only for this typhoon
315. lateen sail
a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Adopted in the Late Middle Ages, and Europeans were able to sail out of the Mediterranean
321. Mongol Peace
Pax Mongolica - Mongols brought peace to almost the entire Asian continent because they tolerated and encouraged diversity, especially religions
323. steppe diplomacy
institution that the Mongols employed to all empires under its control. Paying tribute was one aspect of it
attempt to merge disparate traditions or practices and combine them with another tradition. (religion also)
A native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and northern New Mexico and Arizona
the basic political unit of pre-Inca and Inca life; core of extended families but nno non-related members were included
political grouping of the chimu culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, from 850-1470
known as floating gardens, small, rectangle-shapes area of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico
Mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. During the Inca empire, public service was required in public works projects such as the building of road and military services
333. Quechua =
the language of the Inca empire, now spoken in the Andes highlands from southern Colombia to Chile
greatest ruler of Mughal Dynasty - religious tolerance - created Din-i-Ilahi ("Faith of the Divine"), combo of Hindu, Islam, Christianity patron of the arts/literature
Holy Roman Emperor - heritage from German Hapsburgs, Burgundy, Spanish heritage - united empires
Henry of Navarre
First French monarch - Bourbon dynasty - religious tolerance for Protestant minority - Edict of Nantes - cared about welfare of people
Ivan the Great
quadrulpled size of Russia, made Moscow impressive capital of Third Roman Empire, laid foundation for Russian aristocracy, longest rule
"Sun King" - did he say "I am the state" - longest rule in Europe - made France absolute monarchy, increased France's powers through foreign wars, built Versailles, symbol of European absolutism
British military leader - based on meritocracy - though a military dictator, England became first Republic
Ten Sikh gurus - Northern India - started religion - Sikhism - unique view of world through one God
Ruler of Ottoman Empire - same time as Charles V - fair ruler/expanded holdings, reconstructed legal system
15th century - great king of Songhai Empire in sub-Saharan Africa - controlled Timbuktu - surpassed Mali Empire
a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh.
1571 - Coalition of Catholic states navy defeats Ottoman Empire's navy - signals beginning of W. European/Spain/Portuguese dominance of Mediterranean and beyond
Act of Toleration
1689 - British law granting tolerance to minority faiths - ends generations of bloodshed
economic system where government stays out of companies choices, market - supply/demand determine product, goal is to make profit to reinvest in company
person who starts up company to compete in capitalist system, must secure capital from financing - bank/currency system useful
joint stock company
W. European financial company with capital from investors, used to make a profit - precursor to corporation
Dutch East India Company
Trading corporation for Netherlands - controlled markets and resources of colonies
British East India Company
Controlled trade for Britain - became even stronger than some governments - controlled markets and resources
Treaty of Tordesillas
Pope divides Latin America between Portugal and Spain - Brazil - Portuguese, Spain - everywhere else
In France, initially political bodies responsible for recording laws/edicts - eventually pushed power by not recording edicts they didn't agree with
exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, and music. The style started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe
England monarch 1558-1603, ruled under religious turmoil, Elizabethan Age - golden age of England - Shakespeare, encouraged colonization, didn't give out nobility
1649-1690 - England reduces power of monarchy through overthrow of Cromwell, Glorious Revolution, English Bill of Rights, and writing by John Locke and Thomas Hobbes
began Tang Dynasy - 700, eventually spread to all classes, feet bound on girls at 6 years old, status symbol - only rich could afford to do it, symbol of femininity - women willing to go through pain for appearance - see high heel shoes
rebirth of Classical (Greece/Rome) art/architecture - humanistic focus - patrons - families like Medici and the Catholic Church - blended natural world w/ religion - transition away from religion
footsoldiers of the Pope, Society of Jesus, branch of Catholicism after Reformation, focused on educational/universities, missionary work and social justice
spread to Nothern Europe - literature, art - blended human form w/ religion - literature/arts in vernacular for the masses
French Enlightened thinkers who tried to explain society/human nature - led to Enlightenment
Sect of Protestants in England who dismiss Anglican church, want pure form of Christianity based on Bible, predestination, kicked out to New England - known in the US as Pilgrims
The Rococo style of art emerged in France in the early 18th century as a continuation of the Baroque style, but in contrast to the heavier themes and darker colors of the Baroque, the Rococo was characterized by an opulence, grace, playfulness, and lightness. Rococo motifs focused on the carefree aristocratic life and on lighthearted romance rather than heroic battles or religious figures; they
Architecture of the Renaissance
architecture based on mathematical precision, columns, domes, geometrically perfect designs, revival of Roman architecture
belief that God stays out of our daily lives - he's a big clockmaker who started the universe, gave us everything we need, and then just watches
Patronage of the arts
Catholic Church and rich families paid artists to decorate walls/architecture/fountains/doors
Gutenberg - led to increased literacy, writing in vernacular, takes power from the Church monopoly on literacy
member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century
several peoples living in the southern steppe regions of Eastern Europe and Asiatic Russia, famous for their self-reliance and military skill, particularly horsemanship
Spanish/Portuguese born in Latin America - on class scale, step below those actually born in Spain/Portugal
system of collection of young boys from conquered Christian lands by the Ottoman sultans as a form or regular taxation in order to build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries, or other servants such as tellak
belief that God stays out of our daily lives - he's a big clockmaker who started the universe, gave us everything we need, European belief by monarchs, aristocracy that their right to rule was legitimized/sanctioned by God,I was born into a monarchy, I must deserve it
Rangaku - method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate's policy of national isolation
system of Spanish rule in Americas where Spanish landowners have right to forced labor for all indigenous people living on land grant
attempt to apply logic from Scientific Revolution to human nature/government/economics
meeting of French governing body called to find way of bringing in more income to the state, backfires and leads to French Revolution
former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in the Turkish city of Istanbul
Christian slave army that fought for Ottoman Empire - later developed monopoly on military and resisted technogical innovation
nation-state": a sovereign state of which most of the citizens or subjects are united also by factors which define a nation, such as language or common descent. Typically it is a unitary state with a single system of law and government. It is almost by definition a sovereign state, meaning that there is no external authority above the state itself.
attempt to control monarchy through parliament - first experiment in England - usually controlled budget which controlled/limited monarch
highest of Spanish colonial caste system - peninsular was a citizen born in the metropolitan part of the Spanish Empire. Also, they held high official power or positions.
practice of requiring women to cover their bodies so as to cover their skin and conceal their form, separates genders, some places more cultural than religious
founded by Manch clan from Northeast, not Qin, claimed mandate of heaven, eventually couldn't keep out Europeans, died
reestablishment of Christian rather than Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula, taking place between 718 and 1492
right to exercise supreme political (e.g. legislative, judicial, and/or executive) authority over a geographic region, group of people, or oneself
finest example of Mughal architecture - Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum for his favorite wife, Arjumand Bano Begum, who is better known as Mumtaz Mahal
a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The warrior-caste of samurai were at the top, followed by farmers, artisans, and traders
royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch - usually refers to method of colonial rule
small, highly maneuverable, three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century, due to size could explore up river
Trade of Americas/Africa/Europeexchange of crops, disease, culture, peoples, pack animals - led to improved diets, massive immigration (some forced)
attempt to find water route through North America - none ever found - led to exploration of bays, rivers
term given for sea voyage of African slaves on way to Latin America/Caribbean/North America - 25-50% would perish on trip
trade of African slaves to Caribbean, sugar to industrialized North U.S. and England, manufactured goods to Africa
Catholic Reformation - Counter Reformation
instead of transforming Catholic Church after Protestant Reformation (did get rid of indulgences), stop the spread of Protestantism, both by reforming the Catholic Church, and also by persecuting as heretical those deemed to go too far
of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately 1520 until 1650. Voyages of discovery in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries allowed European powers to build vast networks of international trade, which in turn generating a great deal of wealth for them
data needed to support logical views - theories made not what you believe, but what you can prove
belief that logic, techniques used in Scientific Revolution could be applied to human behavior, government, economics - series of essays/novels - movement away from the Church
belief that earth rotates around the sun, contradicts geocentric view held for centuries, and by church that universe revolved around earth
selling of passes out of pergatory into heaven to pay for Renaissance architecture/art in Rome, big complaint of Martin Luther
belief that government should not control business - hands off - let market decide success/failure of a product
belief that human interaction/rule of law is governed by a set of laws - similar to those found in nature like gravity
complaints made by Martin Luther against Catholic Church - nailed to the church university door, started Protestant Reformation
belief that a long time ago, at the dawn of creation, all spirits/souls were predetermined on who was going to heaven, so...going to heaven not based on works/actions, but on God's choosing
attempt to reform Church, leads to divide, creation of Protestant faiths that gain legitimacy from the Bible and not from the Church, not as ritualistic as the Church, Bibles written in vernacular, movement divided nations in Europe led to wars
Society of Jesus
Otherwise known as the Jesuits, Catholic response to Protestant Reformation - encouraged education, human rights
priest that initiated Protestant Reformation, refused to renounce views, protected by German princes, also wanted clergy to be able to marry
created Anglican Church, split from Catholic Church because Pope would annull marriage to women who couldn't produce male heir
don't believe in holy trinity, only through Bible/faith in Christ can you go to heaven, priests can be married, don't take communion, don't answer to Pope
European religious wars
Following Reformation - European regions fought each other on whether to be Protestant or Catholic, stay Catholic, still pay taxes to Church, Church owns property, but traditional, princes/leaders would change minds & people would have to follow
Thirty Years War
years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Habsburg dynasty was also a central motive
monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their kingdoms. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education
Maria Theresa and Joseph II
first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty. She was Archduchess of Austria, and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and ruler of other territories from 1740 until her death. She also became the Holy Roman Empress when her husband was elected Holy Roman Emperor. She was one of the so-called "enlightened despots" . She was one of the most powerful rulers of her time, ruling over much of central Europe.
Frederick the Great
a king of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty, reigning from 1740 to 1786. - enlightened monarch
provided the first modern formulation of a heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system
improvements to the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations, the first and second laws of motion, and effective support for Copernicanism. He has been referred to as the "father of modern astronomy", as the "father of modern physics", and as "father of science".
Sir Isaac Newton
By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from this system, he was the first to show that the motion of bodies on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. The unifying and deterministic power of his laws was integral to the scientific revolution and the advancement of heliocentrism.
political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. His legacy as a radical and revolutionary is perhaps best demonstrated by his most famous line in The Social Contract: "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."
population growth and the Agricultural Revolution
need for more food for Industrialization/growing population (little disease, improving health/diet), improved technology, crop rotation, enclosure movement
Wealth of Nations author, put forth foundation of capitalism - laissez faire, move away from mercantilism
16th century. The word was initially applied to cottage industries in the countryside. In spite of the opposition of urban guilds, rural residents were performing many industrial tasks.
A lodestone or loadstone is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite. They are naturally occurring magnets, that attract pieces of iron. Ancient people first discovered the property of magnetism in lodestone.
Iberian wave of exploration
Portuguese and Spanish move across coast of Africa,exploring quickest route to India, starts wave of exploration, set up forts on islands on coast
Prince Henry the Navigator
sparks European interest in exploration, gave Portuguese a head start, known in English as Prince Henry the Navigator or the Seafarer (Portuguese: o Navegador). He promoted early Portuguese efforts to explore an African route to Asia
"discoverer" of Americas, looking for shortcut/western route to East Indies - controversial character - treatment of indigenous people/African slave introduction vs. Columbian Exchange and starting new wave of exploration, starts era of European dominance
need for markets, resources for industrializing nations - also needed precious metals to fuel Iberian Peninsula wealth, also Europeans emigrated due to lack of land, overpopulation, chance for new beginning
northern wave of exploration
France, England, Dutch explore North America set up independent colonies with direct ties to Western Europe, less role of the Catholic Church, greater political independence than Latin America, developed more diverse societies than monoculture of Latin America
North American fur trade
Indians and French worked together, massive exporters of fur, beaverskin caps became rage in Europe, French colonized differently, mostly male-dominated initially along Mississippi
British explorer, Scandinvavia, Canada, and North Eastern Europe, looked for Northwest passage
17th century fortified settlement in the New Netherland territory (1614-1674), fortified trading center that later becomes New York City
1299 - Osman is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Empire, and it is from him that its inhabitants, the Turks, called themselves Osmanli until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
certain Muslim rulers who claimed full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e. the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), without claiming the overall caliphate. It then developed some further meanings in certain contexts. The dynasty and lands ruled by the Sultan is called Sultanate
-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan
officially known as Constantinople until 1930 when its name was changed to Istanbul. Due to its three-thousand-year old history it is considered as one of the oldest still existing cities of the world
1480 first Ottoman ruler to claim the title of Caesar of the Roman Empire (supreme ruler of all Christians), besides such usual titles as King, Sultan (ruler of a Muslim state), Khan (ruler of Turks), etc. He made this claim after his conquest of Constantinople (1453), and assumption of that imperial regalia along with his own
method of working with religious minorities in Ottoman Empire - millets had a great deal of power - they set their own laws and collected and distributed their own taxes. All that was insisted was loyalty to the Empire. When a member of one millet committed a crime against a member of another, the law of the injured party applied, but the - ruling - Islamic majority being paramount, any dispute involving a Muslim fell under their sharia-based law
part of the household forbidden to male strangers. In Western languages such as English, this term refers collectively to the wives in a polygynous household as well as the "no-males allowed" area, or in more modern usage to a number of women followers or admirers of a man
Siege of Vienna
failed attempt by Ottoman Empire to invade Europe, ever since Europe had to fear/keep peace with Ottoman Empire - farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam might be signaled as the battle that finally stemmed the previously-unstoppable Turkish forces
native Iranian dynasty from Azarbaijan that ruled from 1501 to 1736, and which established Shi'a Islam as Iran's official religion and united its provinces under a single Iranian sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity and acting as a bridge to modern Iran
Abbas the Great
strongers leader of Safavid Empire, expanded trade w/ West - Abbas' reign, with its military successes and efficient administrative system, raised Iran to the status of a great power. Abbas was a skilled diplomat, tolerant of his Christian subjects in Armenia
ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. It was the last ethnic Han-led dynasty in China - vast navy and army were built, including four-masted ships of 1,500 tons displacement in the former, and a standing army of one million troops. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced in North China (roughly 1 kg per inhabitant), and many books were printed using movable type
pioneering Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). The Roman Catholic Church considers him to have converted more people to Christianity than anyone else since St. Paul
Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times the Qing also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. The last Qing emperor was overthrown in 1911
tea and Chinese trade with Europe
Portuguese discover Chinese tea in 1560s, starts as drink of the wealthy, eventually supply increases, becomes part of daily life of Europe, dominates life
one of the greatest Chinese emperors in history. His reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning Emperor of China in history, though it should be noted that having ascended the throne aged 8, he did not exercise much, if any control, over the empire, that role being fulfilled by his 4 guardians and his grandmother the Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
, 1336-1573) was a feudal military dictatorship ruled by the shoguns of the Ashikaga family. most of the regional power still remained with the provincial daimyo, and the military power of the shogunate depended largely on their loyalty to the Ashikaga. As the daimyo increasingly feuded among themselves in the pursuit of power, that loyalty grew increasingly strained, until it erupted into open warfare
reunification of Japan
The reunification of Japan is accomplished by three strong daimyo who succeed each other: Oda Nobunaga (1543-1582), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), and finally Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) who establishes the Tokugawa Shogunate, that governs for more than 250 years, following the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600
Nobunaga lived a life of continuous military conquest, to eventually conquer most of Japan before his untimely death in 1582
and brought an end to the Sengoku period. He was also known for his invasion of Korea. He is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms
Babur the Tiger
founded the Mughal dynasty of India. He was a direct descendant of Timur, and believed himself to be a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother
"ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. He was and is a very controversial figure in South Asian history, and is considered a tyrant by most Indians, Hindus, Sikhs, and other non-Muslims During his reign many Hindu temples were defaced and destroyed, and many non-Muslims (mostly Hindus) converted (widely believed forcibly) to Islam.
king of the Songhai Empire in the late 15th century. He strengthened his country and made it the largest in West Africa's history. At its peak under Muhammad, the Songhai Empire encompassed the Hausa states as far as Kano (in present-day Nigeria) and much of the territory that had belonged to the Mali Empire in the west. His policies resulted in a rapid expansion of trade with Europe and Asia, the creation of many schools, and made Islam an integral part of the empire
gold trade in West and Central Africa
made inland nations rich, relied on slave trade and gold to increase wealth, stunted/slowed industrialization, made African nations dependent, needed to purchase European weapons to expand control of region
Leader of loosely run Ashanti confederacy in Africa - of firearms bought from European traders in exchange for gold and slaves he greatly expanded the power of the city-state
Name given to Dutch immigrants to South Africa, that eventually move inland, come into conflict with Zulus and British who later colonize
legalized separating of races in South Africa based on color - you're either white, colored or black
South African tribe led by Shaka Zulu that united tribes through warfare and then posed threat to Boers and British, one of few instances where non-Europeans able to defeat Europeans in battle
European and Arab domination of the East African-Indian Ocean trade network
Portugal and Islam dominated trade of trees, exotic animals, slaves to Arab world, back to Europe
Atlantic slave trade
purchase and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. It is sometimes called the Maafa by African Americans, meaning holocaust or great disaster in kiSwahili. The slaves were one element of a three-part economic cycle—the Triangular Trade and its infamous Middle Passage—which ultimately involved four continents, four centuries and the lives and fortunes of millions of people
sugar production and the slave trade
labor intensive, dangerous, spurred growth of Atlantic Slave trade to Caribbean/Latin America - numbers kept up through extensive trade, not through reproduction - males primarily brought over - overseers keep order violently, absentee landowners
the name given to one of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire from 1525 to 1821 - today it is Central America, plus Mexico, plus Southwest United States
Spanish importation of smallpox and measles
Columbian exchange negative - immunity lacking in indigenous people - led to millions of deaths - huge demographic switch
forever altered world trade - became source of wealth for Portugal/Spain, currency for China, dominated resource of Mexico, extracted minerals from America and sent to Europe
Portuguese sugar production
Portuguese cultivated in Brazil 1532 - surpassed honey as primary sweetener
last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City
first British colony in New England - famous Pilgrims - became religious focused w/ semi-theocracy
Massachusetts Bay Colony
first British colony in New England - went on to be Massachusetts - started as joint-stock company
French and Indian Wars
wars between England and France over land, secession, and power - end up being played out in North America - colonists and British vs. French and Indians - debt from these wars eventually leads to high British taxes which lead to American revolution
5. A political and economical system; relation of a vassal and its lord is characterized by homage and protection
17. economic exploitation
17. The misuse, taking advantage of another, often more beneficial economy
24. The study of heredity improvement of the human race controlled by selective breeding
26. Social Darwinism
26. The belief that one achieves more than others by genetic or biological superiority
27. White Man's Burden/Rudyard Kipling
27. The belief that god asked Caucasians to enslave or take responsibility of the colored
36. Monroe Doctrine
36. The proclamation that prevented European nations from colonizing in the Americas
40. domestic/putting out system
40. Working on pieces of a product at home and the finalizing and selling them in the marketplace
49. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
49. The triangular slave trade- from Africa to Caribbean and then the Americas
Capitalism is an evolving concept, which is derived from earlier European economic practices (Feudalism, Imperialism, Mercantilism). Capitalism is widely considered to be the dominant economic system in the world. There is continuing debate over the definition, nature, and scope of this system.
52. Enclosure movement:
During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes
53. Second Agricultural Revolution:
A period of technological change from the 1600s to mid-1900s beginning in Western Europe, beginning with preindustrial improvements like crop rotation and better horse collars, and concluding with industrial innovations to replace human labor with machines and to supplement natural fertilizers and pesticides with chemical ones.
54. Steam power:
steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. Steam engines were used in pumps, locomotive trains and steam ships, and was essential to the Industrial Revolution. They are still used for electrical power generation using a steam turbine
55. Spinning Jenny:
The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn, in Lancashire in the north west of England. The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker able to work eight or more spools at once.
56. Protestant work ethic:
a value system that stresses the moral value of work, self-discipline, and individual responsibility as the means to improving one's economic well being; important in the industrial revolution because of its stress in hard work, etc.
57. Wealth of Nations/Adam Smith:
Considered the founding father of economics, Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776. His most famous concept was that markets guide economic activity and act like an "invisible hand" - allocating resources through prices, which rise when there is a shortage of a commodity and fall when it is plentiful.
58. Laissez faire capitalism:
Laissez-faire is short for "laissez-faire, laissez-passer," a French phrase meaning idiomatically "leave to do, leave to pass" or more accurately "let things alone, let them pass". First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. Laissez-faire economic policy is in direct contrast to statistic economic policy.
59. Bessemer Process:
Process of rendering cast iron malleable by the introduction of air into the fluid metal to remove carbon. This was the first process for mass-producing steel inexpensively.
60. Factory system:
The factory system was a method of manufacturing adopted in England during the Industrial Revolution. Workers would come to work in a city factory, often making low-quality goods in mass amounts. The method prior to the introduction of factories was the domestic system. The result of the factory system was that the quality of goods declined. Since factories were based in large cities, people from rural areas moved into the city to get work.
61. Interchangeable parts:
important for the industrial revolution because it signified the ability to change parts of products comparatively easier than before
62. Assembly Line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create an end product.
63. Transportation revolution:
a term often used by historians to describe the dramatic improvement in transportation in the West that took place in the early 1800s. The Transportation Revolution included greatly improved roads, the development of canals, and the invention of the steamboat and railroad. Shipping costs were lowered as much as 90 percent in this era, which gave a big boost to trade and the settlement of new areas of land.
65. Reform movements:
movements that occurred, often, at the end of the industrial revolution, such as the feminist and labor union movements
66. Labor unions:
A union is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues; emerged at the end of the IR
67. Communist Manifesto/Karl Marx:
document relating proletariat with the IR, proletariat should overthrow bourgeoisie - roots of communism
Workers in Britain (1810-1820) who responded to replacement of human labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy the machines; named after a mythical leader, Ned Ludd.
69. United States Civil War:
1861-1865 - First modern war using industrial revolution, ironclad ships, new technology, massive deaths
agriculture based on only one crop; resulted in many European colonies in the 1800-1900 because of mercantilism
71. "Banana Republic":
a small country (especially in Central America) that is politically unstable and whose economy is dominated monoculture because of European mercantilism
72. popular consumption:
goods that are consumed by a large percentage of the population around the IR, such as textiles
74. partial modernization:
industrialization but only to a certain extent; see Samuel Hungtinton's Clash of Civilizations (good book...)
75. Meiji Restoration:
The Meiji Restoration also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japan's political and social structure. It occurred from 1866 to 1869, a period of 4 years that transverses both the late Edo (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and beginning of the Meiji Era. Probably the most important foreign account of the events of 1862-69 is contained in A Diplomat in Japan by Sir Ernest Satow.
Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization
80. traditional family life:
involved a larger family with many children for agricultural work, etc.
81. cotton gin/Eli Whitney:
The cotton gin is a machine invented in 1793 invented by American Eli Whitney (granted a patent on March 14, 1794) to mechanize the production of cotton fiber. Led to increase of Atlantic Slave Trade
A muckraker is a journalist, author or filmmaker who investigates and exposes societal issues such as political corruption, corporate crime, child labor, conditions in slums and prisons, unsanitary conditions in food processing plants, fraudulent claims by manufacturers of patent medicines and similar topics.
83. Settlement Houses
neighborhood centers in urban areas that provided literacy, classes, daycare, entertainment - like a YMCA
84. Women's Emancipation movements:
movements for greater female rights; referred to as feminist movement
86. pull factors:
attract or pull an organization towards a new location, eg the availability of cheap skilled labor.
A pogrom (from Russian: "погром" (meaning "wreaking of havoc") is a massive violent attack on a particular ethnic or religious group with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). The term has historically been used to denote massive acts of violence, either spontaneous or premeditated, against Jews, but has been applied to similar incidents against other minority groups.
91. life expectancy rates:
expected age until death - improved due to improved health care, brief drop at beginning of Industrial Revolution due to living conditions,
93. birth rates:
number of births eventually drops again as middle class has less need for many kids
100. upper class women:
affluent women with absolutely no lives; led the women's rights movements at the end of the IR
101. Victorian Age -
the era of Britain's industrial revolution and Queen Victoria's reign from 1837 to 1901
105. cult of domesticity -
American view that preached women's role was in the house taking care of the children
107. constitutional monarchy -
a monarchy whose power is defined and limited by a constitution (defines monarch as head of state)
108. John Locke -
English philosopher who argued that the government's power came from the people and that revolution against tyrants was acceptable
109. social contract -
an agreement between a state and its citizens to define the state's powers and the citizen's rights
111. "taxation without representation" -
Taxes were levied on American colonies, but they were not represented in Britain's parliament
112. Common Sense/Thomas Paine -
writing by American revolutionary that advocated separation from Britain and republican government
113. Declaration of Independence/Thomas Jefferson -
document outlying America's separation from Britain and the reasons why, written by American political and revolutionary leader
114. causes of French Revolution -
absolute monarchy abuses power, policies of Louis XVI, economic troubles, war debts, and droughts
117. Declaration of the Rights of Man -
French revolutionary document that outlined the rights of the people
118. Reign of Terror -
the period where the monarchy and aristocracy were targeted along with opponents of the French Revolution
120. Cycle of Revolution -
calls for change from monarchy followed by moderate government followed by radical government followed by moderate government followed by monarchy
125. Congress of Vienna -
European meeting after Napoleon's defeat to try and restore political stability and settle diplomatic disputes
126. Congress System/Metternich -
Austrian diplomat at the Congress of Vienna - system of Europe working together
127. spirit of conservatism -
after era of revolution attempt by European diplomats to return order to the good ol' days when autocracy ruled and people stopped rebelling
131. Revolution of 1848 -
causes - bad harvests, economic stagnation, reaction against conservative rule, negative social and economic effects of the Industrial Revolution, and nationalism
132. Revolution of 1848 -
effects - forced King of Prussia to grant constitutional reforms, highlighted power of nationalism, unified Germany and Italy, political, social, and economic issues of the people have to be met
135. Latin America Wars of Independence -
Causes - growing sense of nationalism, colonial economic policies, social class system, Napoleon
136. caudillos -
military juntas or governments - military men that take over power - sets precedent
141. Empress Cixi -
disastrous Chinese monarch whose policies led to economic stagnation and China's decline
142. "Hundred Days Reform" -
103 days of social and institutional reform in 1898 launched by the Qing emperor of China, Guangxu
143. Abdication of Manchu Emperor -
emperor abdicates in 1912 - ends foreign rule - Mandate of Heaven dynasties
148. Simon Bolivar -
Creole military leader who fought for Colombian independence between 1817 and 1822
150. King John VI -
Portuguese King who ruled in Brazil from 1808 to 1820 because of Napoleon's invasion
151. King Pedro/Pedro II-
Portuguese king John VI flees to Brazil, Portuguese government from Brazil. John leaves and leaves his son, Pedro, Pedro lives entire life in Brazil and declares independence for brazil and becomes emperor. Pedro gives power to Pedro II rules for most of 19th century. Stable monarchy
152. Catholic Church in Latin America
very powerful in Latin America. One of the largest land owners in Latin America - lobbies to keep conservative rule, economic/social/political interest
All Russians had to learn Russian language and convert to orthodoxy, anyone who didn't' was persecuted, Jews.
154. Czar Nicholas II-
doesn't reacto to revolution, socialists organize, tried to rally Russians around the falg but lost against Japanese
something like parliament but has no real power, every time they tried to make change, czar disbands them.
156. Indian National Congress-
English speaking, educated upper class, most influential is Mohandas K. Gandhi-1869
157. Mohandas Gandhi-
Lived in S. Africa from 1893-1915, defended rights of Indian living under apartheid(areas that has racism), and returned to India as a central figure in freedom movement, nonviolent resistance.
More radical socialism (economic competition is inherently unfair and leads to injustice/ inequality)
willing to respect or accept behavior or opinions different from one's own. Open to new ideas.
abolition of all government the organization of society on a voluntary, cooperative basis without recourse to force or compulsion.
165. Victor Emmanuel II-
King of Sardinia + Count Camillo Cavour, push nationalism, towards the unification of Italy.
167. Otto von Bismarck-
Prime minister of Germany, build the military. Consolidating the region under Prussia's authority.
170. Irish home rule-
Should North, Split Catholic/ Protestant remain British or Irish, Should Ireland be set free.
175. Crimean War-
1853-1856, Tsar Alexandar II forced to implement liberal reforms, Modernize Russia, Emancipation of serfs in 1861, lightened censorship, widened powers of local govt, 1881, Alexander II assassinated
176. Tokugawa Shogunate-
seized control in 1600s, authority with emperoer, reality with shogunate, Samurai top, centralized Japan. Warring states to peaceful country.
184. Mary Wolstonecraft
English writer, vindication of rights of women- 1792 (Equal rights, education, political, economic pursuits)
187. early phases of feminist reform-
reform family/ divorce law, own property/ divorce, teaching and nursing (women's sphere)
190. Essay on Population/Thomas Malthus-
population growth led to poverty, war diseases, starvation needed to control population.
191. Iron Law of Wages/David Ricardo-
Employer will pay lowest possible wage to make money. Supply of labor goes up then salaries will drop.
196. literacy rates-
greater access to public education increased through 1800s, Literacy rates rose.
197. Fridrich Nietzche-
"God is Dead", All systems of morality valueless in the materialistic modern age.
Most important - emotion/passion, more self expression, Self-realization of the individual, heroism, love of the natural world
Rejected Romanticism's idealized dramatic outlook, critical view of life. Details of everyday existence, poverty, social hypocrisy, class injustice.
200. Cecil Rhodes- Britain/Africa -
"I contend that we are the finest race in the world, and the more of it we inhabit, the better it is."
201. economic imperialism -
practice of promoting the economy of one nation in another. It is usually the case that the former is a large economically or militarily powerful nation and the latter is a smaller and less developed.
202. la mission civilisatrice -
French idea of spreading their advanced civilization to others through colonization. Also referred to as "mission civilisatrice."
203. British East India Company -
A joint-stock company of investors with the intent to favor trade privileges in India. Eventually transformed from a commercial trading venture to one which virtually ruled India.
204. "sun never sets on the British empire" -
a phrase that emerged in response to the British dominance during the Modern Era. Britain was the first nation to industrialize and thus, was able to gain an advantage over all other competing nations.
206. Sepoy Mutiny -
May 10th 1857. Sepoys, trained Indians as British soldiers were angered by the rumors that their rifle ammos were greased with lard and beef fat. Thus, they mutinied. The mutiny was harshly crushed by the British.
208. infrastructure -
The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons.
209. civil service exam -
Exam all Chinese government official-to-be's had to go through in order to prove themselves. Very rigorous, although once you passed, instant success was guaranteed.
213. Dutch East India Company -
was established on March 20, 1602, when the Estates-General of the Netherlands granted it a monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It was the first multinational corporation in the world and it was the first company to issue stocks.
214. Singapore -
The island of Singapore was ceded to the British East India Company in 1819, and the city was founded the same year by Sir Thomas Raffles. The British took complete control in 1824 and added Singapore to the newly formed Straits Settlements in 1826. Otherwise known as the place we currently live in.
216. Spanish American War -
took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. Cuba would be declared Independent in 1902.
217. "sleeping dragon" -
term given to China by Napoleon, regarding their untapped population, size and resources.
219. "unequal treaties" -
a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Chosun Korea, and foreign powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This was a period during which these states were largely unable to resist the military and economic pressures of the primary Western powers. China forced to open up all its ports to Britain.
220. Christian missionaries -
Christians who traveled into other countries and attempted to spread the Christian faith. Enthusiastically persecuted in Japan by Tokugawa...
221. footbinding -
Chinese custom of binding women's feet. They preferred small feet? Confined women to homes. Degrading practice for women of China.
222. White Lotus Rebellion -
It apparently began as a tax protest led by the White Lotus Society, a secret religious society that forecast the advent of the Buddha, advocated restoration of the native Chinese Ming dynasty, and promised personal salvation to its followers.
223. Taping Rebellion -
Rebellion initiated by Hong Xiuquan to overthrow the Manchurians and establish the kingdom of Heaven in China. Got off to an impressive start militarily but only because Hong avoided attacking large urban centers.
224. Hong Xiuquan - ),
leader of the Taiping Rebellion. Believed he was the son of Jesus Christ. Failed the civil service examination many times.
225. Open Door Policy -
The Open Door Policy is the maintenance in a certain territory of equal commercial and industrial rights for the nationals of all countries.
226. Boxer Rebellion -
was a violent movement against non-Chinese commercial, political, religious and technological influence in China during the final years of the 19th century.
228. "Dark Continent" -
A former name for Africa, so used because its hinterland was largely unknown and therefore mysterious to Europeans until the 19th century
229. "Scramble for Africa" -
The Scramble for Africa began in 1881, when France moved into Tunis with Bismarck's encouragement. After centuries of neglect, Europeans began to expand their influence into Africa. Soon, it took on a full-fledged land grab in Africa by European Powers.
230. Berlin Conference -
The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa
233. Ashanti Kingdom -
was a powerful state in West Africa in the years prior to European colonization. It was located in what is today southern and central Ghana.
235. Boer War -
The Boer Wars was the name given to the South African Wars of 1880-1 and 1899-1902, that were fought between the British and the descendants of the Dutch settlers (Boers) in Africa.
236. Shaka Zulu
widely credited with transforming the Zulu tribe, from a small clan, into the beginnings of a nation that held sway over that portion of Southern Africa between the Phongolo and Mzimkhulu rivers.
240. quinine/malaria -
An infectious disease characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating = when cure was found, Europe could go internal Africa
242. Belgium - Congo -
the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between King Léopold II's formal relinquishment of personal control over the state to Belgium on 15 November, 1908, to the dawn of Congolese independence on 30 June, 1960.
243. "Great Game" -
used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
244. Balkans -
A major mountain range of southeast Europe extending about 563 km (350 mi) from eastern Yugoslavia through central Bulgaria to the Black Sea. Known as the most dangerous place on Earth, due to the presence of many different racial groups in the region. WWI starts here.
245. Young Turks -
A member of a Turkish reformist and nationalist political party active in the early 20th century.
246. Anglo-Egyptian Administration -
an Anglo-Egyptian agreement restored Egyptian rule in Sudan but as part of a condominium, or joint authority, exercised by Britain and Egypt. The agreement designated territory south of the twenty-second parallel as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
248. "Long Peace" -
Peace between 1871 and 1914 between European nations. Tensions are rising.
249. Alliance System -
After the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck held that Germany was a "satiated state" which should give up ideas of further conquest. Thus Bismarck organized a system of alliances designed to maintain Germany's hegemony on the European continent
250. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine -
The Monroe Doctrine had originally been intended to keep European nations out of Latin America, but the Roosevelt corollary was used as a justification for U.S. intervention in Latin America.
251. Panama Canal -
major shipping canal which cuts through the isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans - US encouraged Panama to rebel to get favorable deal for land
252. Spanish-American War -
took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. Cuba would be declared Independent in 1902.
254. Modernization Theory -
developed countries emphasize individuality and capitalism. Economic prosperity due to industrialization is the key to a nation's advancement. All countries will naturally modernize.
255. Dependency Theory -
less developed nations either intentionally or unintentionally depend on the developed nations for economic support. Some countries will never be able to break out of dependent cycle...modernization theory doesn't apply. Ex. Latin American nations depend on Europe during colonization. Later result in monoculture.
229. "Scramble for Africa" -
The Scramble for Africa began in 1881, when France moved into Tunis with Bismarck's encouragement. After centuries of neglect, Europeans began to expand their influence into Africa. Soon, it took on a full-fledged land grab in Africa by European Powers.
230. Berlin Conference -
The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa
233. Ashanti Kingdom -
was a powerful state in West Africa in the years prior to European colonization. It was located in what is today southern and central Ghana.
234. Boers/Afrikaners -
Dutch settlers that move into interior of South Africa, later conflict with Zulus and British
The Boer Wars was the name given to the South African Wars of 1880-1 and 1899-1902, that were fought between the British and
235. Boer War - the descendants of the Dutch settlers (Boers) in Africa.
236. Shaka Zulu -
widely credited with transforming the Zulu tribe, from a small clan, into the beginnings of a nation that held sway over that portion of Southern Africa between the Phongolo and Mzimkhulu rivers. Rare example of indigenous people beating industrialized European country in battle
240. quinine/malaria -
An infectious disease characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating - cure leads to colonization on African interior
The systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group.
social theory by Darwin on evolution applied to determine social class (the strong survives, the weak doesn't, Europeans= the best)
a political philosophy supporting the right and power of the people in their struggle against he privileged elite
Economic system, where means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned, profits gained in free market
system of government, under authority of a dictator, through suppression of the opposition by means of terror and censorship
A prohibition by a government on certain/all trade with a foreign nation - method of pressuring a nation diplomatically
revolution in that allowed the increasing availability of information due to the use of things like computers, internet and other technologies
a worldwide economic downfall, started in 1929, but different time in differet countries. Basically all countries were affected, worst hit was the industrialized countries like the US.
political leader of India, played a key role in gaining independence for India through non-violent protest, boycott.
first woman to serve as a prime minister, of England, conservative - symbolized shift away from welfare economy
Led social revolution in Egypt in 1952 And was an army officer and politician who servedAs both prime minister (1954-56) and president 1956-58). His nationalism of the Suez Canal precipitatedan international crisis in 1956.
After being released from prison for helping to lead The black organization, African National Congress, In South Africa, he became the nation's first Democratically elected president in 1994
Mao Tse Tung
Chinese communist leader, Mao, came to power in 1949 and proclaimed the People's Republic ofChina. While in power, he initiated the Great leap Forward and the founding of communes. He also Led the Cultural Revolution and established ties withThe West.
American computer software designer who Co-founded Microsoft and built it into one of the Largest computer software manufacturers
The policy of granting concessions to potential enemies to maintain peace. (Such as in the Munich Conference of 1938)
An association comprising the United Kingdom, its dependencies, and many former British colonies that are now sovereign states with a common allegiance to the British Crown
An alliance during WWI with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy(though it left and became neutral), and the Ottoman Empire (which joined after Italy left)
International economic crisis following WWI. Began With the collapse of the American stock market in 1929 and caused mass unemployment.
League of Nations
International diplomatic and peace organization Created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended WWI;One of the chief goals of President Woodrow WilsonIn the peace negotiations
movement in the 1800's to unite the Slavic people in Austria and the Ottoman Empire
meeting of the Allies of WWII to clarify and implement agreements made at the Yalta Conference
the act of making amends. (Germany's war payments as agreed to in the Treaty of Versailles)
cultures under the Russian Empire become a part of a Great Russian Culture- loyalty to the tsar; a form of nationalism
Spanish Civil War
Conflict between supporters and opponents of the Spansh republic; there was a Nationalist victory due in part to 'non-intervention' of Western democracies
A conference in Tehran, Iran involving USSR, US and Britain aimed at strengthening cooperation in WWII
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty between USSR and the Central Powers, calling for Russia to withdraw from WWI and to surrender territory.
International organization founded in 1945 to promote peace, security and economic development
Meeting between USSR, US and Britain, demanded Germany's unconditional surrender and called for the division of Germany
The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals
Extending a nations authority over another nations economy/politics (new driving force behind Latin American revolutions)
An Afrikaans-speaking South African of European ancestry, especially one descended from 17th-century Dutch settlers.
Alliance for Progress
U.S. assistance program for Latin America to counter revolutionary politics (1961)
When Dutch Afrikaners were given control by the British and they practiced apartheid, or extreme racial segregation.
religious teachers that oppose secular views, ex: Ayatollah Khomeini, Islamic fundamentalist who played a pivotal role in the Iranian Revolution.
symbol of the iron curtain (separate East Berlin from West), prevented East Berliners access to the West came down in 1989.
introduced during the Cold War, policy or practice, especially in international politics and foreign policy, of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome by forcing the opposition to make concessions. During the Cold War, the threat of nuclear force was often used as such a deterrent.
Alliance between entities (nations, states, groups). The US used diplomacy to create a wide coalition of support. In the Post Cold war alliances and coalition were always shifting. OPEC is the most successful coalition in history. After WWII a coalition government in China was encouraged, but the communists won in 1949.
US (democracy) vs. Soviet Union (totalitarian communist). Lasted nearly 50 years, 1945 to early 1990's. US and Soviets vied for global domination and tried to pull the rest of the world into the war. Arms race between the two nations.
Part of Stalin's Five Year Plans. HE took over private farms and combined them into state-owned enterprises and created large, nationalized factories.
Where the US prevented the spread of Communism by establishing the Truman Doctrine to aid nations threatened by communism.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In 1962 Soviets were installing their missiles in Cuba and Pres Kennedy established a naval blockade around Cuba. If the missiles were launched the US would retaliate against the Soviet Union. The Soviets backed down and Americans promised not to invade Cuba.
Goal was to discourage a privileged ruling class from forming, he instituted reforms that erased any influence from the West, intellectuals were sent to collective farms for "cultural restraining", political dissidents were imprisoned or killed. Mao's Little Red Book became a symbol of the forced egalitarianism.
Five Year Plans
Stalin discarded the New Economic Policy (NEP) of Russia and imposed the Five Year Plans and collectivization played a huge part.
After France lost the battle at Dien Bien Phu, they signed the treaty in 1954. Nations of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam were created and Vietnam was divided into north/south - elections in a 2 years.
When Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union in 1985, he instituted policies of glasnost or openness and urged a perestroika (restructuring) of the soviet economy.
Government of India Act
Created in India in 1935 after Ghandi was jailed and it increased suffrage/provincial gov't to Indian leaders
Great Leap Forward
In the late 1950's, Mao implemented this, huge communes were created to catapult the revolution towards its goal of a true Marxist state. But the local govts, couldn't produce the ridiculous amount of agricultural quotas demanded by the central govt, and lied about production, leading to the starvation and deaths of nearly 30 mill Chinese.
The Chinese Nationalist Party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919, it drew support mainly from local warlords. It initially formed an alliance with Communists in 1924, and after 1925 was dominated by Chiang Kai-shek.
After WWII, Winston Churchill coined the phrase to describe the division between free and Communist societies that was occurring in Europe
The Korean War was fought from 1950 to 1953. The North was supported by USSR and later People's Republic of China while the South was supported by U.S. and small United Nations force. The war ended in stalemate, with Korea still divided into North and South.
Russian agricultural entrepreneurs who used the Stolypin reforms to increase agricultural production and buy more land
A program of substantial loans given by the U.S. to Western Europe in 1947, it was designed to aid in rebuilding efforts after the war's devastation. It was also an attempt by the U.S. to stop Communism (if countries were economically propped up they would be less likely to turn to Communism) and it helped secure American economic dominance
May Fourth Movement
In 1919 - resistance in China to Japanese encroachments began. This generated a movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy (Confucianism was rejected, etc)
New Economic Policy
Instituted by Lenin in 1921 - the state continued to set basic economic policies, but now efforts were combined with individual initiatives. This policy allowed food production to recover
Promotion of alternatives to bloc politics - as in Yugoslavia's split from the Soviet bloc in 1948. Later Jawaharlal Nehru of India and Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt joined in the founding of the Nonaligned Movement in the mid-1950s, which had basic principles of opposition to all foreign intervention and peaceful coexistence. The first meeting of nonaligned states was the Belgrade Conference of Nonaligned Nations in 1961.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Created in 1949 under U.S. leadership to create an alliance between most of the Western powers (including Canada) in defense against possible Soviet aggression
Mikhail Gorbachev's policy calling for economic restructuring in the USSR in the late 1980s. This included more scope for private ownership and decentralized control in the areas of industry and agriculture
In 1968, Czechoslovak Communist Party leader Alexander Dubcek tried to liberalize the country's communist regime by introducing democratic reforms such as free speech and freedom of assembly. The period came to be known as the Prague Spring, but it was ended when Warsaw Pact (Soviet) troops invaded in a military crackdown.
In 1936, Stalin began a series of purges aimed at destroying all political opposition and dissident viewpoints. These also included intensive campaigns within key Soviet institutions and sectors like the Communist Party, the Army, the NKVD (secret police), and scientists/engineers.
Student brigades utilized by Mao Zedong and his political allies during the Cultural Revolution to discredit political opponents/enemies
Members of Nicaraguan social movement named after Augusto Sandino - during the 1980s successfully carried out a socialist revolution in Nicaragua
Fought between Egypt and Israel in 1967; was disastrous for Egypt and one of the failed foreign adventures under Gamal Abdul Nasser, adding to the regime's problems
In 1970s, in the form of widespread Catholic unrest and an independent labor movement. (Against the back drop of a stagnant economy and low morale)
In China, student led, believed the Communist party led government was too corrupt and repressive. Government doesn't permit democratic reform, 1989.
United States was prepared to send any money, equipment, or military force to countries that were threatened by the communist government. Assisting countries resisting communism.
International Islamic fundamentalist organization. To reduce outside influence upon Islamic affairs. (some classify it as International terrorist organization)
association of manufacturers with the purpose of maintaining prices at a high level and restricting competition. In Latin American nations- large foreign debts, huge international drug cartel that threaten government stability.
International Monetary Fund
IMF- resources for development usually for badly strapped for investment funds and essential technology.
Persian Gulf War
1991 led by US and various European and Middle Easter allies against Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. This led to Iraqi withdrawal and a long confrontation with Iraq about armaments and political regime.
Concession for aid, for example commit to buy products, favor investors, lend countries to enter into alliances and permit military bases on the territory of the client state.
to dismantle all trade and currency exchange barriers among member nations. A single currency, set up in many member countries by 2001.
European Economic Community
European Economic Community- create a single economic entity across national political boundaries.
started as European Economic Community, an alliance of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, later joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Swede, Austria, Finland. It was to create a single economy across national boundaries in 1958.
import substitution industrialization
Cut off from supplies of traditional imports, these countries then experienced a spurt of industrial growth.
North American Free Trade Organization - NAFTA
free trade agreement, benefits from economic alliances. (United States, Mexico, and Canada)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Oil cartel that determines supply of oil - of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since
World Trade Organization (WTO)
international body that sets the rules for global trade - competitive trading, but give chance for developing nations to join, must follow certain civil rights codes
DNA - building blocks of life - once decoded leads to cloning possibilities, health remedies, tracking people
Hubble Space Telescope
space telescope that circles earth - free of atmosphere - took astrophysics to another level
International Space Station
Permanent human presence outside earth - combined five space agencies - US, USSR, European, Japanese, Canada - teamwork through science
post-industrial economies that provide services to consumer culture - white collar jobs - move away from factory labor
1957 First Soviet satellite into space - set off space race - threat by both sides of nuclear attack from space
most important movement since Renaissance - objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form
not Catholicism - personal experience of conversion, biblically-oriented faith, and a belief in the relevance of Christian faith to cultural issues
wealth now spent on surplus items - consumer goods - industrialized world spends a ton of money bringing their world from a 10>11 instead of bringing everyone else up from a 0>1
National Organization for Women (NOW)
American feminist group - founded 1966 - dedicated to lobbying for women's fertility, employment, marital, education rights
Franklin Delano Roosevelt's plan to turn US into welfare state to bring out of Depression - state-sponsored programs for relief, recovery and reform
new activism of western European state in economic policy and welfare issues after WWII; reduced impact of economic inequality (avoid another world war).
introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation to produce higher crop yields; after WWII in densely pop. Asian countries.
Legal workers with no rights for citizenship/permanent recidency who immigrate for work; a threat to citizens for job opportunities; usually from a less developed country > developed country.
mass expulsion or killings of a certain ethnic or religious group; eg. WWII: the holocaus, massive killings of Tutsis by Hutus in the Rwandan Genocide.
1915: Young turk leaders killed millions and sent hundreds of Amermenians to Russia and Middle East to cover up the blunders of reverses on the Russian Front
Nuremberg war crimes trial
two sets of trials for the Nazis from WWII and the holocaust; included commanders, industrialists, and medical doctors
UN police action
the United Nations starting a military action without declaration of war; against violators of international peace and order
"Powder keg of Europe"
area in the Balkans; region where the wars would begin such as the assassination of Franz Ferdinand
to retaliate in a greater force; the ending of WWII by the bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima
1917: overthrowing of the Tsarist regine; 1918 (3rd Russian Revolution): series of anarchist rebellions and uprisings against both the Bolsheviks and the White movement
General Francisco Franco
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (following the victory of the Spanish Civil War)
Nickname for Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) - shooting down nuclear weapons from space - never actually worked, but scared USSR into economic bankruptcy
Hitler's plan to have Germany reign for a Thousand Year Empire over Europe - lasted 6 years - nice try
Triple Alliance, Central Powers
World War I alliance - Ottoman Empire, German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire - the bad guys
Triple Entente, the Allies
World War II alliance - UK, France, Russia, later US and all their colonies - the good guys
Entire economy, political, social system geared for war - civilians become targets - government takes greater control of everyday life
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Led the Indian Muslim League - pushed for partition of India - led to creation of Pakistan
Political party in British India - driving force for partition of India - creation of Pakistan
1946 - Britain couldn't hold India together - Jinnah threatening civil war - Pakistan created - later divided into Bangladesh - tensions ever since over border disputes - Kashmere - largest refugee immigration in world history
Persian Gulf States
Cooperation council of nations border Persian Gulf - Bahrain, Iran (Persia), Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
Collapse of the Berlin Wall
Symbolic end of the Cold War - divide between East and West Berlin - protesters threatened to take apart and military didn't stop them - 1989
Expensive effort to turn salt water into fresh water - usually located in Persian Gulf regions
Large Scale Companies that initially began as business in a certain region of the world but has grown to become so big and is now an "international" company. Examples: General Electric (GE), Nike, Nokia, and McDonalds.
National Congress Party
Indian Political Party established in 1885, that led the eventual push for Indian Independence from the British Crown in 1947. Currently the largest Indian Political Party.
Organizations that are not established or associated with any specific organizations. They may be recognized, however, they run on their own. Examples are Green Peace and Amnesty International.
the nations bordering the Pacific Oceans, usually Asian nations: Japan, North and South Korea, Taiwan and eastern China.
A holy war raged by Muslims against Non-believers, although in recent times, even attacks by one Muslim group against another have risen.
The "Holy Land" of Islam, Christianity and Judaism where ongoing conflicts take place between the Jewish Community (who represent Israel) and the Arab Community (who represent Palestine). Israel was a recent creation for the Jewish people and named the "Jewish Homeland" by the British Empire.
A former member of the Republic of Ireland that broke away in 1920 after refusing to take part in the Irish Free State. Ruled and governed by Protestants and heavy discrimination exists against the Roman Catholic Minority. Capital: Belfast.
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne who was assassinated in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which triggered the Austro-Hungarians to pledge war against Serbia, which then initiated World War I.
Germany's "blank check"
After Sarajevo, Count Leopold von Berchtold, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister, sent a letter to Emperor Francis Joseph to sign and send to Wilhelm II to try and convince him of Serbia's responsibility of Franz Ferdinand's assassination. On July 6th, Wilhelm II and Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, told Berchtold that Austria-Hungary could rely that Germany would support whatever action was necessary to deal with Serbia -- in effect offering von Berchtold a 'blank check.'
The German plan to destroy France and gain victory over the Western Front during the first month of World War I. A counterattack by the French on the outskirts of Paris prevented the Germans. Alfred von Schlieffen wrote up the Plan.
Eastern and Western Fronts
Eastern Front was the former East Germany, parts of Central Europe and Russia. The Western Front was the "Low Countries" (who for the most part remained neutral), France, Great Britain and then the United States.
A type of combat where opposing troops fight one another in trenches, where conditions are extremely poor, hygienically.
a type of combat where submarines are used to fight against opposing forces underwater. Was used heavily in the Baltic Sea against Russia forces.
economic mobilization of home front
the continuing of each country's own economy during the time of warfare and battles. New labor laws were set and women often replaced men as males had to serve time in military during the World Wars.
Created by Woodrow Wilson during the Paris Peace Conference. (1. end to secret treaties, 2. freedom of the seas, 3. arms reduction, 4. decolonization, 5. self-determination, 6.League of Nations-for disputes).
New form of gov't created during the interwar years in Italy. Uses modern tech, bureaucracy to control everyone, imposed censorship, controlled culture, put dissidents in prison, propaganda to create cult of personality.
Caused by dissatisfaction with the way the country was being run. Transfer of power from the Tsar.
Shared power with local soviets thus ineffective during communist rule in the soviet union.
Expelled by Stalin; disciple of Marx; friend of Bolshevik; organized the victorious Red Army;
General Secretary of communist party; premier of the USSR; rule marked by: forced collectivization of agriculture; policy of industrialization; victorious and devastating role for the soviets during WWII.
Expulsion/execution of rivals when Stalin became paranoid. Negative of collectivization.
Work camps where perceived dissidents sent. Negative of collectivization during Stalin's rule.
Italian Fascist Party
Formed in 1991; held a majority of seats during elections during the 90s. as a result of the fascist movement, freedom of assembly and thinking were wiped out in Italy.
March on Rome
the coup d'état by which Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in late October 1922.
the democratic government of Germany between the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II and the assumption of power by Adolf Hitler; it was unpopular because of its acceptance of the harsh provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
An autobiography written by Adolf Hitler. In it, Hitler outlines his plan for the revival of Germany from the losses of World War I and blames Germany's problems on capitalists and Jews.
Passed by Germany's parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. It was the second major step after the Reichstag Fire Decree through which the Nazis obtained dictatorial powers using largely legal means. The Act enabled Chancellor Adolf Hitler and his cabinet to enact laws without the participation of the Reichstag.
Nazi laws that used a pseudoscientific basis for racial discrimination against Jews with the religious observance of a person's grandparents to determine their race.
Members of a Turkish reformist and nationalist political party active in the early 20th century.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
The military and political leader who brought about the end of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of modern Turkey. He was promoted to general at the age of 35 and given command of the army near the Black Sea port of Samsun. He defied the Sultan's orders to quash opposition and instead built an army of his own to fight for independence from European control. The Sultan ordered his arrest, but 1919- 1923 he successfully fought off foreign armies as well as opposition forces from Turkey. On 23 October 1923 the national parliament declared the existence of the Republic of Turkey with Kemal as president. His fifteen years in office were turbulent -- he ruled as a dictator as he attempted political and social reforms -- "father of the Turks."
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Shah of Iran (1925-41). He began as an army officer and gained a reputation for great valor and leadership. He headed a coup in 1921 and became prime minister of the new regime in 1923. He negotiated the evacuation of the Russian troops and of the British forces stationed in Iran since World War I. Virtually a dictator, he deposed the last shah of the Qajar dynasty, and was proclaimed shah of Iran. Thus he founded the Pahlevi dynasty, and changed the name of Persia to Iran. Reza Shah introduced many reforms, reorganizing the army, government administration, and finances. He abolished all special rights granted to foreigners, thus gaining real independence for Iran. Under his rule the Trans-Iranian RR was built, the Univ. of Tehran was established, and industrialization was stepped-up.
British minister Lord Balfour's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine issued in 1917.
Chinese politician who served as provisional president of the republic after the fall of the Manchu (1911-1912) and later led the opposition to Yuan Shigai.
Chinese politician. Authorized by China's final imperial edict to create a republican government, he was named president but ruled as a dictator (1912-1916).
Chinese Communist Party
Founded by Chinese Communist leader and theorist Mao Zedong... who led the Long March (1934-1935) and proclaimed the People's Republic of China in 1949. He then initiated the Great Leap Forward and the founding of communes. He continued as party chairman after 1959 and was a leading figure in the Cultural Revolution (1966-1969).
Chiang Kai-shek - Nanjing Republic
A military officer who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as the leader of the Guomindang or Nationalist party in China in the mid 1920's; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930's , but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the communist after World War II.
Emperor of Japan (1912-26). His given name was Yoshihito. The son of Mutsuhito, the Meiji emperor, he succeeded to the throne in 1912, but because of illness he played little part in governing the nation. His reign was characterized by democratization, friendly relations with the West, and economic growth. In 1921 Taishō was declared mentally incompetent and his son Hirohito was made regent.
Journey undertaken by Red Army in 1934-35 when Jiangxi base was encircled by the Nationalist army & Chiang Kai-Shek
Japanese invasion of Manchuria
step towards war with military gov't, renames it Manchuko, invading mainland China & commits atrocities
figurehead of Japan, actually controlled by military when the war starts for Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
40th prime minister of Japan, nationalist, general in Imperial Army, executed for war crimes
British fire on unarmed protesters, Gandhi goes to prison, British get more restrictive
Takes over Congress/movement, political leader of India, begins "Quit India" campaign so Brits leave
US foreign policy - Latin America
Latin America = US views L America as their sphere of influence, gained Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, military present in Panama, sponsored dictators in Venezuela/Cuba
Institutionalized Revolutionary Party
Mexico, granted suffrage & right to strike, but actually oligarchy that chose president, upper class prospers, country modernizes, but middle class small & lower class huge
president of Mexico 1934, redistributes acres with land reform, nationalized oil industry (took from US)
Brazil, 1930 Vargas takes over, censored press, tortured political opponents, modernized Brazilian economy (diversifies, free from coffee)
Argentina, 1916 Radical party, reforms benefit peasants, labor unions become more active, overthrown in 1930
Juan and Eva Peron
Argentina, takes over after WWII, populist leader, wife popular, appeal to lower class, raised salaries of working class, gov't controlled press, denied civil liberties
Hitler's desire for "living space" for German people, wants to unite Germans from other nations
Symbolic failure of appeasement; Hitler given Czech. Sudetenland for promise of no future aggression
lightning fast war coordinating planes, tanks, infantry - move past border, directly to capital
Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
Name given to Asian region Japan wanted to conquer, kick out Europeans, control resources
June 6, 1944 - Invasion of Normandy, sets up Western Front against Germany, USSR pleased, known D-Day
systematic targetting of civilians - both residential and industrial capability - destroy will to fight
Nazi decision to exterminate Jews, last years of World War II, shipped to extermination camps
January 20, 1942 - high level Nazis meet secretly to discuss, agree upon "Final Solution"
Ideological, economic and military conflict between superpowers - 1945-1989 - world takes sides - bipolar world
partition of Germany
Divided among Allies - England, France, US, USSR - USSR section becomes E. Germany, others unite - W. Germany
Stalin shuts off trains, planes, roads into East Berlin - attempt to cut off western influence - Berlin Airlift foils plans
Controversial USSR premier Follows Stalins (1953-1964), criticizes Stalin's policies, foreign policy brings USSR-USA to brink of war
nuclear arms race
Both USSR_USA push for weapons w/ larger payload, longer/more accurate trajectory, larger quantity
mutually assured destruction
Deterrent policy in which neither USA-USSR would use nukes, because they would likewise be annihilated
Initially countries neither in US or Soviet bloc, now it is those developing countries in Africa, Asia, L. America
Ideology that dominated 1950s/1960s, if one nations goes communist, neighboring countries would likewise turn Communist
Soviet invasion of Hungary
October 1956 hundreds of thousands Hungarian protesters put down by Soviet govt - leads to drop in support for Marxist ideas
Fidel Castro and Cuban Revolution
Overthrows Cuban gov't, believed too much of Cuban nation controlled by foreign interests, adopts Communist-state-controlled/nationalized economy
Bay of Pigs
Failed attempt by US supported/trained Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro, failure embarasses US - increases Cuban-US tension
1968 policy - no Soviet Bloc country can try to break free from Warsaw Pact - control of Soviets
China breaks from USSR, Mao wants more control/become Superpower also, mutual preservation from other's aggression
Failed attempt by USSR to take over Afghanistan - expense/negative public reaction hurt USSR communists - US supported Afghan guerillas
Charles de Gaulle
First president of France's 5th Republic - Gaullism - independence from international world - withdraws from NATO - pushed for social welfare
German Chancellor 1982-1998 - worked w/ Mitterand on European Union - like Thatcher/Reagan - wanted to lower taxes, encourage initiative - conservative
following WWII - nations pushed to be free of European control - Europe focused on own issues, allowed decolonization at varying degrees - based on settler population
wars of liberation in which local/indigenous populations fought imperial powers - usually supported secrety by Soviet KGB or American CIA depending on ideology
Camp David Accords
US moderated peace talks between Egypt and Israel - broke down Arab unity, Egypt loses influence in Arab matters
Yasser Arafat - Palestine Liberation Organization
Leader of terrorist organization wanting to evict Israelis, regain homeland, represenation for Palestinian people - later becomes political party
Israeli prime minister at Camp David - returned land to Egypt, destroyed Israeli settlements
Palestinian Arabs fighting against Israeli occupation of Gaza Strip/West Bank - boys w/ stones vs. tanks image
Transformed Iran from pro-Western nation to fundamentalist Islamic nation. becomes religious theocracy
Leader of Iranian Revolution - group of students supporting seize US embassy 1979 - begins stage of anti-US sentiment - fundamentalist theocracy
Dictator Iraq - took over power in coup, pushed war against Iran, invaded Kuwait - Persian Gulf War - genocide against Kurds