44 terms

APES History Part 1 (Nonbold)

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Garrett Hardin
Wrote about depletion of a potentially renewable to which people have free and unmanaged access.
First Earth Day
First established on April 20, 1970, by Senator Gaylord Nelson. This demonstrated the people's interest in the environment.
George Perkins Marsh
Dangers of uncontrolled development are outlined in his book, Man and Nature. This scientist and member of Congress questioned the idea that country's resources were inexhaustible.
Rachel Carson
Writer, scientist who is credited with starting the modern environmental movement by writing Silent Spring
Aldo Leopold
Author of A Sand County Almanac, he was a leader in the conservation movement by promoting land ethics.
Montreal Protocol
Bans CFC's in order to protect the ozone layer
Henry David Thoreau
While living at Walden Pond, wrote Life in the Woods. This author realized the importance of environmental protection.
Gifford Pinchot
Forester and conservation advocate, served under Teddy Roosevelt as chief in the US Forestry Service.
John Muir
Largely responsible for establishing Yosemite and National Park System on public lands. Founded the Sierra Club. Preservationist. Explorer and good friend of Teddy Roosevelt.
Hunter-gatherers/American Indians dominate (Tribal Era)
During Tribal Era. Exploited land, but generally were sustainable due to low numbers and low resource per person.
Theodore Roosevelt
Most Historians view him as the country's best environmental president. Established first federal refuge for the brown pelican. Added 34 more reserves by 1904.
Antiquities Act
Allows president to protect areas of scientific or historical interest on federal lands as national monuments.
Golden Age of Conservation
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt's term was known as this.
Wise-use Movement
Led by Roosevelt and Pinchot; believed that public lands should be managed wisely (conservation).
National Park Service
Within the Department of Interior. Manages National Park System.
Herbert Hoover
During his term, due the Great Depression, he proposed that all remaining federal lands be returned to the states or sell them to private interests for economic development.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Strove to bring the country out of Depression and formed the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) putting 2 million unemployed people to work planting trees, building dams and restoring waterways.
Wilderness Act
Inspired by Muir 80 years earlier. Allows Congress to preserve undeveloped land unless they later decide it can be used for national good. Human use: hiking or camping. No motor vehicles.
Apollo Missions
Photos allowed people to see how tiny the earth was. Led to development of spaceship-earth worldview.
The Environmental Decade
1970's. Media attention rapidly raised public awareness of environmental issues
Thomas Malthus
Developed the theory of population growth. Wrote "An Essay on the Principle of Population". Controversial. Wrote theory that "increased human population would limit human population's ability to feed itself based on eventual insufficient land for crops". Influenced Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection.
Marine Mammal Protections Act
Encourages protection and conservation of marine mammals. 1972.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Requires tracking of hazardous waste "from cradle to grave" (how is it made, used and disposed of) and encourages recycling, resource recovery and waste reduction.
3-Mile Island
The most serious U.S. nuclear power plant accident in history, although no detectable health effects from radiation detected. Pennsylvania. Brought about sweeping changes to nuclear power plant operations.
Cuyahoga River
2Sparks from a rail car set fire to oil-and-chemical-soaked debris floating in the river. The river was on fire! Led to industrialists who had been polluting the river to change their ways. Catalyst for Clean Water Act.
Energy Policy Act
Increases amount of biofuel (fuel from plants or plant-derived materials/microalgae) that must be mixed with gasoline sold in U.S Promotes Energy Conservation and addresses energy production in the U.S. Provides loan guarantees for entities that develop/use innovative technologies that avoid the byproduct of greenhouse gasses.
(CERCLA)
Created a tax on chemical and petroleum industries, providing broad federal authority to clean up hazardous substances Over 5 years $1.9 million collected (Superfund). Put in trust fund to clean up abandoned toxic waste dumps. Love Canal. Established by Carter.
(NEPA)
Requires federal agencies prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and submit to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Requires EIS before federal construction on airports, highways, etc. EPA is overseen by this agency.
John Audubon
Illustrator, painter, scientist (ornithologist) known for his drawings of American birds. He conducted the first bird-banding experiments.
Ansel Adams
Committed to Wilderness Preservation, especially Yosemite. Was the Sierra Club's first official photographer (did not found the Sierra Club though).
Kyoto Protocol
Limits emissions of greenhouse gases. We are no longer part of this.
Chernobyl
Nuclear accident 1986 in the Ukraine due to series of human errors, inadequately trained personnel and flawed reactor design. 2 died that night, 28 weeks later, and severe increase in thyroid cancer due to intake of radioactive iodine intake. Only case in history where radiation-relation fatalities occurred. Showed importance of compliance with international laws and training personnel.
Bhopal
Gas leak (MIC gas) incident from a chemical factory. American-owned Union Carbide Pesticide Plant in India. 1984. Gas cloud over the city. Many thousands of people and animals died. One of the world's worst industrial accidents.
Information Globalization Revolution
Ability to share digital information is reshaping economies and social infrastructures. Information technology (IT) is the driving force.
Clean Air Act
This act expanded the levels of air pollution control under government control.
Agricultural Revolution
Transition from small farming for one's family, to large scale production of crops. Severe increase in habitat destruction for cropland. Created social changes.
Industrial Revolution
Transition from renewable wood to nonrenewable coal. Catalyst for exponential growth of the human population. Lowered infant mortality rate and increased life span due to more medicines available to more people.
Endangered species Act
Provides the conservation of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife and plants.
Jimmy Carter
President who helped create the Superfund as part of CERCLA. He also used the Antiquities Act to triple the amount of National Wilderness (but he did not secure more land than a different president in the 80's).
George W. Bush
President who wanted to weaken environmental and public use laws due to threatened economic growth. Withdrew United States from Kyoto Protocol.
Ronald Reagan
A president in the 80's who was a self-proclaimed sagebrush rebel. Drastically cut research for renewable energy, such as solar. Increased mineral development and timber cutting. Lowered auto gas mileage standards and lowered water quality standards.
Sagebrush Rebellion
Movement in the 1970's and 80's that sought major changes to federal land control, use and disposal policy in the American West, where federal land holding was 20%-80% of the area (depending on the state). Supporters wanted the federal land to be given back to the states.
EPA
President Richard Nixon, in response to a rapidly growing environmental movement.
Minamata, Japan
Mental impairments, birth defects and death caused by a Mercury spill in the bay.