33 terms

Biology 9th Chapter 11!

For better notes than we get in class...go to "Howstuffworks.com" and type in DNA replication. then read sections (DNA structure, DNA replication, Transcription , Translation, and Protien Synthesis)
Nucleic Acids?
Where is DNA found?
The info DNA does what?
guides the cell in making proteins and copies for the next generations
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
What does a nucleotide contain?
A sugar( Deoxyribose or Ribose), a phosphate, and a base
The nucleotide is the basic building block of _____?
nucleic acids
What are the two classes of nitrogen bases?
Purines- which are double-ringed structures (Adenine, Guanine) / Pyrimidines-single ringed structures (Cytosine, Thymine). The bases on the 2 strands of DNA pair up, pyrine with pyrimidine ( thats why (A) goes with (T) & (G) with (C)
What did Watson and Crick discover?
DNA has two sides/strands and that because they were twisted together like a ladder they create a double helix
What causes the DNA to twist?
the hydrogen bonds between phosphates
When a cell reproduces it passes all of its information to its ________ ________ .
Daughter Cells
Before a cell can reproduce it has to ________ .
THe DNA strand can unzip down the middle and create a _______ for the next cell.
DNA doesn't unzip all the way, it unzips in a small area called the _________ which then moves down the whole molecule.
replicatioon fork
DNA stands for what?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
RNA stands for what?
Ribonucleic Acid
What sugar does RNA use?
What sugar does DNA use?
How many strands does DNA have?
2 strands
How many strands does RNA have?
1 strand
RNA uses Uracil instead of what?
Thymine, so Adenine pairs up with Uracil
DNA never leaves the cell so its information must be copied by what process?
The copying process is transcription and the copy is tRNA or mRNA ?
Its the mRNA, messenger RNA
Transcription is performed by a _______?
what is translation?
the assembly process, converting mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins.
What is genetic code?
the nucleotide sequence transcribed from DNA to a strand of mRNA as a genetic message
What is a codon?
a set of 3 nitrogen bases that represents an amino acid
What is the role of tRNA in protein synthesis?
RNA transports amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a pattern
How many amino acids are there?
20 types
Proteins are made up of?
amino acids
The ribosome is made up of 2 parts that bind on either side of the _______ .
Each tRNA has a binding sitre for the ________ .
amino acid
Each tRNA has a specific 3-nucleotide sequence called an anti codon that matches up with the _______ codon.
If a codon on mRNA has the sequence U-U-U it has to match up with the anti codon tRNA __-__-__ .
A-A-A because adenine binds with Uracil in RNA