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Chemistry Exam 4
Terms in this set (37)
What are the four variables we measure for in gas samples?
n = number of moles
T = Temperature (must be in K)
V = Volume (use L)
P = Pressure (atm)
What law is inversely proportional?
Boyles --- Volume and pressure are not directly proportional
What is the comblined gas law?
What are the standard STP conditions?
T = 0°C (273 K)
P = one atm
n = 22.4
How do you calculate density?
Mass divided by volume
How do you determine kinetic energy?
1/2 x M x V²
When to elements are trying to form what will it form near?
The element trying to form will be formed closer to the slower element (larger element)
What is the formula for partial pressure?
(mole fraction)(Total Pressure)
How do you find mole fractions?
moles / total moles
How do you find total pressure?
combine all the pressures together
(sum of individual partical pressures)
What do you do when it says "collected over water"
From the table get the water pressure.
.What is depostion
going from a gas to a solid
What is sublimation
going from a solid to a gas
How would you explain a SOLID?
Strong forces of attraction between particles
How would you explain a LIQUID?
Explain a GAS.
Negligible forces of attraction
temperature at which particles in a solid sample have enough energy to overcome intermolecular forces of attraction
NORMAL Boiling Point
temperature at which a liquid has a vapor pressure of 760 mmHg
temperature at which a liquid has a vapor pressure equal to barometric pressure that day
How would you calculate the mole fraction if gave a percentage?
Assume a 100 gram sample then calculate the moles of each element then figure out the mole fraction from there
Stronger vs. Weaker Intermolecular Forces (IMF)
Stronger: higher boiling point
Weaker: lower boiling point
Ionic vs. Covalent
Ionic: non-metal and metal
Covalent: two non-metals
1- Ion-Ion (Strongest forces on the list)
A. Charge Magnitude (greater the charge the greater the attraction)
B. Size (smaller ions attract each other more tightly than large ions)
2. Hydrogen Bonding (F-H, O-H, N-H bonds)
3. Dipole-Dipole (polarity)
4. Induced Dipole - Induced Dipole (London Dispersion Forces - LDF)
this is anything with a H in it - creates the strongest covalent bond
Induced Dipole Interactions
All molecules have thes LDF
- the larger the molecule the stronger this effect
Moles of solute / L of total solution
Moles of solute / kg of added solvent
Moles of solute / Total moles in solution (solute and solvent)
Percent by mass and the three different "Part per __"
(part / whole)
- part by HUNDRED --- times by 100
- part by MILLION --- times by 1,000,000
- part by BILLION --- times by 1,000,000,000
Sgas (solubility) = kH (Henry's Law Constant) x Pgas (partial pressure of gas)
--- to find the kH: you tkae the M divided by the pressure.
--- then find the final solubility by multiplying the kH and Pgas together.
Explain Raoult's Law
Psolution = (X solvent)(P pure solvent)
--- X solvent is calculating the mole fraction
Higher concentration: dehydrated cell (can be dissolved in water)
Lower concentration: flow of water into cell may cause it to burst
How do you calculate osmotic pressure
IIV = nRT
(II is the pressure)
Six Strong Acids
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO₃, H₂SO₄, HClO₄
Eight Strong Bases
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)₂, Sr(OH)₂, Ba(OH)₂
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Final Lab Practical
Module 52 & 54
Module 52 & 54