Seeks to optimize the relationship between technology and the human
human factors/ ergonomics
Designing jobs, products, operations, tasks, work environments so they are compatible with human capabilities & limitations.
Holistic, problem-driven way of looking at the world.
An approach that focuses on the relationship between system elements (e.g. people and technology).
Emphasizes the interconnections between parts of an organization and external environments
Breaking a problem into a set of simpler sub-problems, solving each of these individually
they focus on people and remove the interaction with technology itself from the equation.
the technical sciences - engineering, computer science and applied math. Focus primarily on hardware and software; an understanding of human needs and capabilities isn't part of the equation.
humanistic and mechanistic
two big groups within science
Human Factors Engineering
a systematic approach to guide the human interactions with a facility (say, a "control room") to ensure that all functional aspects of human involvement are achievable without introducing opportunities for human error.
Objects and environments should be designed to be usable by as many people as possible.
Aesthetic designs are perceived as easier to use than less aesthetic designs; More readily accepted and used over time, an promote creative thinking and problem solving
a property of the object. They provide strong clues to the operation of things; suggest how the object should be used; users know what to do just by looking at the object
sliders for sliding, music console for controlling music, dials for turning
The placement of elements such that edges line up along common rows or columns, or their bodies along a common center.
A technique of combining many units of info into a limited number of units or chunks, so that the information is easier to process and remember.
refers to a unit of information in short-term memory -a string of letters, a word, or a series of numbers.
A technique used to associate a stimulus with an unconscious physical or emotional response.
Process in which similar characteristics evolve independently in multiple systems;
•Natural or human-made systems that best approximate optimal strategies afforded by the environment tend to be successful, while systems exhibiting lesser approximations tend to become extinct.
High percentage of effects in any large system are caused by a low % of variables.
Factor of safety
Design requires dealing with unknowns. Factors of safety are used to offset the potential effects of these unknowns. This is achieve by adding materials and components to the system.
Flexibility usability tradeoff
As the flexibility of a system increases, its usability decreases.
Interference effects occur when two or more perceptual or cognitive processes are in conflict
an irrelevant aspect of a stimulus triggers a mental process that interferes with processes involving a relevant aspect of the stimulus. Ex. Time it takes to name the color of words when the meaning and color of the words conflict.
Mental models are representations of systems and environments derived from experience.
asserts that simplicity is preferred to complexity in design.
- Given a choice between functionally equivalent designs, the simplest design should be selected. - If all other things are being equal, the simplest solution is the best.
Performance versus Preference
The designs that help people perform optimally are often not the same as the designs people find most desirable
The deliberate use of a weak element that will fail in order to protect other elements in the system from damage.
Visibility and Feedback
Principle #1: Make relevant parts visible.
Principle #2: Give each action an immediate and obvious effect
Hiding certain functions can be advantageous in interface design Certain functions are kept invisible until needed;also contained within a group of similar types
Visibility and feedback
sound can be used to provide similar informations
approach to systems design and development that aims to make interactive systems more usable by
identify needs; gather requirements from stakeholders
Understand the users and their goals, needs, and limitations; understand the context of use
Select the appropriate input/output tools and techniques; create alternatives
Assess effectiveness and efficiency of design; compare designs; involve users as much as possible
Suggestions for changes and plan the next iteration
create the product
mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses
"Problem solve by trial and error", usually powerful & efficient • history of success • does not guarantee best solution, may lead to bias
tendency to favor one thing over another—mental shortcuts our brains use to help us navigate complex environments that bombard us with far more information than we can consciously cope with. Natural result of heuristic application.
Failure to detect a change when it co-occurs with another change
Failure to detect a change when attention is focused elsewhere
the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses
selectively focusing on some information and ignoring other information