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Language, Multiculturalism, and Communication Disorders Exam #1
Terms in this set (56)
A learned set of shared perceptions about beliefs, values, and norms.
T or F: Cultures are very resistant to change.
An idea that people assume to be true about the world. They are a set of learned interpretations that form the basis for cultural members to decide what is and is not logical and correct.
Include the culture's fundamental teachings about what reality is and expectations about how the world works.
Refer to matters of personal taste
T or F: Culturally shared beliefs are unconscious. (ex: the earth is flat vs round)
Involve what a culture regards as good or bad, right, or wrong, fair or unfair, just or unjust, beautiful or ugly, clean or dirty, valuable or worthless, appropriate or inappropriate, kind or cruel, etc.
*They are culturally determined.
Outward manifestations of beliefs and values. They are the surface characteristics and evident in observable behaviors. They are socially shared expectations of appropriate behaviors. Violations of these lead to imposition of social sanctions or penalties.
T or F: Norms vary from time to time while beliefs and values endure.
T or F: Norms are observable in our actions an appearances while values and beliefs are more hidden.
Cultural, social, and personal
Self-concept include's one's _____ , ______, and ______ identities.
The sense of belonging to a particular group (either cultural, ethnic, or other). This sense of belonging comes from learning about and accepting traditions, heritage, language, religion, aesthetics, thinking patterns, and social structures.
How does cultural identity develop?
Children learn to view themselves as members of a particular group, beginning with the family. (The concept of what consists of a family varies from culture to culture). Children are also taught about the groups that they do and do not belong to. These are the in-groups and out-groups. Later, personal and professional interests create new groups to consider (ex: personal interest - ballet dancer, professional interest - SLP)
Develops due to membership to a particular group within one's culture. Such groups may be based on similarities in ages, gender, work, religion, ideology, social class, place of residence, etc.
Based on one's unique characteristics, which may be different from those of others in their cultural and social groups. These characteristics include aspects of ourselves such as like to cook, or sing, be goofy or gracious, one's talents, abilities, and quirks and preferences.
The three identities are interdependent to an extent.
2)Cultural identity search
3)Cultural identity achievement
Cultural identity develops through a process of what three stages?
During this stage, one take one's status as granted and no exploration of cultural issues takes place (ex: children and some adults who simply accept preconceived ideas because of either social power or privilege. "I don't have a culture, I am just an American!")
Cultural identity search
The process of exploration and questioning about one's culture to learn and understand the implication of membership in a culture. The exploration comes with increased social and political awareness, increased talking with family and friends about cultural issues, independent learning about and participation in cultural events, etc. This stage also involves emotions, including tension and anger towards other groups as one becomes aware of any discrimination that may present difficulties in attaining education, career, or personal objectives. (ex: I want to know what we do and how our culture is different from others.)
Cultural identity achievement
Characterized by a clear, confident acceptance of oneself and an internalization of one's cultural identity. People develop ways of dealing with stereotypes and discrimination so that they do not internalize other's negative perception. One is clear about the personal meanings of one's culture. The stage leads to increased self-confidence and positive psychological adjustment (ex: my culture is important and I am proud of what I am.")
Cultural identity is ______ , as it exists within a changing social context. It changes with ongoing life experiences and is multifaceted (ex: one may see oneself as a student, an employee, a friend, a daughter, a woman, etc.)
A belief that one's culture is superior to the other. It highlights and exaggerates cultural differences (ex: body odor and use of deodorants; chewing food loudly, belching in front of a host, etc.)
Culture is a set of learned and shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms. Culture can be seen in people's communication behavior. Culture allows for predictability, stability, and reduced uncertainty, etc. It allows us to neatly categorize our experience with others in the group. However, with culturally different people one may feel weird, odd, unusual, or unfamiliar because one cannot categorize one's experience with one's cultural framework and this may lead to stereotyping.
A form of generalization about some groups of people. It makes assertions about characteristics of all people who belong to a particular group. Individual differences are disregarded.
Second hand stereotypes
Hearing someone else's assumptions about someone or a group of people (these are extreme)
They are all the same (ex: all asians are smart). These lead to errors in interpretation and expectations.
A negative attitude towards other people. It is based on faulty and inflexible stereotypes and could include feelings of dislike or even hatred. People with this may ignore counter-evidence or distort it to fit their prejudices (it is in our minds).
Behavioral manifestation of prejudice. It leads to unequal treatment of certain individuals because of their memberships (shows up in our actions).
A tendency to categorize people who are culturally different in terms of physical traits such as skin color, hair color and texture, facial structures, eye shape, etc. The oppression is the systematic and institutionalized mistreatment of one group of people by another. Forms of this may vary in intensity and degree of expression.
T or F: Intercultural contact can foster positive attitudes between groups.
1)adopting new ways
2)keeping to themselves
3)picking up and leaving
Participants respond by either ____, ______, or _______.
Sustained intercultural contact requiring immersion leads to ____ _____ as predictability is lost.
__-_____ ______ occurs on the individuals return back home and the need to re-adapt.
What are the four types of adaptations?
Occurs when it is deemed relatively unimportant to maintain one's original cultural identity but it is important to establish and maintain relationships with other cultures. It means taking on the new cultures beliefs, values, and norms. Ex: US as a melting pot
Occurs when one retain's one's cultural identity while seeking to maintain harmonious relationships with other cultures. Ex: multilingual, multicultural countries such as Canada, Switzerland, etc.
Results when one does not want to maintain positive relationships with members of the other group and staunchly retain its characteristics. If this is due to the choice of the politically/economically more powerful group then it is segregation (ex: African Americans). If it is self-chosen then it is seclusion (ex: The Amish).
Occurs when one neither retain's one's cultural heritage nor does one maintain positive contacts with the other group. It is often characterized by confusion and alienation.
T or F: To become culturally competent, we must realize our tendency to categorize, judge, and interpret behaviors from our own cultural perspectives and become aware of the emotional reactions (to sights, sounds, smells, etc. too).
1)The ability to deal with psychological stress.
2)The ability to effectively and appropriately communicate with others, and
3)The ability to establish interpersonal relationships.
Intercultural effectiveness consists of developing what three skills?
A set of more or less systematized beliefs and values in terms of which the group evaluates and attaches meaning to the reality that surrounds it.
T or F: The connection of the worldview to a culture is automatic and unconscious.
1)Where do I come from?
2)Why am I here?
3)What happens when I die?
Most of the religions answer what same three questions?
Symbolic actions that represent religious meaning. Its function is to recall past events, preserve, and transmit the foundations of society. They are not instinctive and hence must be learned before they can be passed on. examples: rite of passage (marriage, death, etc.), lighting candles, kneeling, wearing a certain attire
Religion is bound to this concept of what one should and should not do. These teachings come in the form of religious rules (ex: the Ten Commandments) Often these rules are very strict and can becomes the laws of the society. Most religions have similar rules such as to "avoid crime" and "be good". These rules are believed to allow the practitioner to attain salvation, redeem the soul, achieve enlightenment, or liberate the soul.
Religions provide a sense of identity and _______.
T of F: Even those who say "There is no God," have answers to the larger questions of life, death, etc. Everyone has a worldview, regardless of whether one recognizes it or not.
-A set of beliefs and a way of life.
-Is a monotheistic tradition with Jesus as the incarnate of God.
-It teaches that God is omnipresent and omnipotent and that salvation is only through God.
-Church is the house of worship and a community place where God's message is shared with others.
-The Ten Commandments serve as the ethics compass.
-The individual is on the move and there is a future orientation toward time.
-Women have a place not inferior to men.
-Strength and courage are traits to be cultivated.
-Based on a covenant between God and man (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Moses).
-This covenant or pledge is that men carry the message of God, and God will make Israel a great place.
-It teaches that there is one God and that humans cannot be divine but are free.
-Learning is important.
-Justice is paramount
-Family is the place of worship and devotion.
-Teaches a belief in one God, Allah, and submission to whom is the basic principle.
-Two major forms of this religion are Sunni and Shiite.
-Muslims believe every other God is false.
-They Koran of Muhammad supersedes other scriptures.
-They practice belief, prayer (Salut- performed 5 times a day), alms (Zakat- consideration for the needy, all are equal when kneeling down for God), fasting (Sawm during Ramadan to experience hunger and deprivation to build discipline and faith) and pilgrimage (Hajj).
-Jihad - an inner struggle with one's self to live up to the faith and an outer (armed) struggle against nonbelievers.
-Religious, social, and political aspects of life are unified and inseparable.
-Gender roles are specified and men are seen as superior to women.
-Art emphasizes shapes, forms, design, style, etc. and not people, landscapes, or representations of reality.
-An ancient and complicated religion.
-Includes a vast array of beliefs and deities.
-There is no single founder, teacher, or prophet.
-There is a great variety of customs, forms of worship, gods, myths, philosophies, types of rituals, movements, styles of art and music, all loosely connected.
-Many Gods/paths are accepted but the ultimate message of each God/path is believed to be the same.
-The four Vedas, the Upanishad, the 18 chapters of Bhagvad Gita are the scriptures that each how to achieve yoga through the paths of knowledge (gnana), devotion (bhakti), selfless work (karma), and meditation (dhyana).
-There are multiple paths to enlightenment.
-God is within us and everything is divine.
-The perceived world is deemed an illusion, a dream (maya) from which one needs to be awakened and be enlightened.
-Dharma consists of religious and communal responsibilities.
-Based on Siddhartha Guatama's story.
-Buddha is not God.
-Each one of us had the potential to become "awake."
-Be lamps unto yourselves.
-The four noble truths
-Sees language as deceptive
-It is believed that enlightenment comes from within, nature is impermanent, and one should develop good karma, and be humane.
-There are no theories about God in this religion (you are it).
1)Suffering, due to
2)Craving, which must be
4)Following the eightfold path
What are the four noble truths?
What does the eightfold path consist of?
-Confucius taught conduct.
-The teachings of Confucius are not religious in nature; they encourage good social, political, ethical, and religious behaviors.
-Social harmony is emphasized more than any God is.
-The Analects are 20 books containing discussions on the words of Confucius.
-These books contain aphorisms, sayings, stories, proverbs, etc. and encourage virtue and humanity.
-The use of indirect language is encouraged by the followers of Confucian thought.
T or F: One's worldview is one's cultural orientation toward God, humanity, nature, the universe, life, sickness and death, and other philosophical issues about existence. Religion becomes an important element of culture from which a worldview is derived.
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