Life Span Development Chapter 12

Text: Santrock
Though controversial, it is indicated that self-esteem:
d. declines in adolescent girls.
Why is self-esteem significantly worse for girls than for boys during adolescence?
c. Because girls perceive a negative body image during adolescence
Results of a New Zealand longitudinal study that assessed the self-esteem of adolescents at 11, 13, and 15 years of age and adjustment and competence of the same individuals when they were 26 years old, indicated:
d. that adults characterized by poorer mental and physical health were more likely to have low self-esteem in adolescence than well-adjusted, competent adults.
_____ refers to a self-centered and self-concerned approach toward others.
b. Narcissism
Are today's adolescents and emerging adults more self-centered and narcissistic than their counterparts in earlier generations?
d. The extent to which recent generations of adolescents have higher self-esteem and are more narcissistic than earlier generations is controversial.
Which of the following statements about identity development is true?
d. Identity encompasses an individual's personality characteristics.
Erikson's fifth developmental stage, which individuals experience during adolescence, is _____.
a. identity versus identity confusion
What is Erikson's term that describes a period in which society leaves adolescents relatively free of responsibilities and free to try out different identities?
b. Psychosocial moratorium
Adolescents who do not successfully resolve their identity crisis suffer from what Erikson calls _____.
c. identity confusion
Eriksonian researcher James Marcia reasons that Erikson's theory of identity development contains _____ of identity, or ways of resolving the identity crisis
b. four statuses
What determines an individual's identity status?
c. the existence or extent of their crisis or commitment
_____, or exploration, is defined as a period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives.
d. Crisis
_____ reflects an individual's personal investment in identity development.
a. Commitment
An adolescent who is researching and experimenting with different vocational possibilities is experiencing what psychologist James Marcia calls a(n):
a. crisis.
Identify the status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments.
b. Identity diffusion
Unlike many boys his age, 15-year old Jeremy is showing little interest in making choices regarding his future. He has also not thought very deeply about his stand on ideological issues that his friends debate over. James Marcia would say that Jeremy is in the identity status termed:
b. identity diffusion.
Identity _____ is James Marcia's term for the status of adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis, and whose commitment levels are either absent or only vaguely defined.
d. moratorium
Ramon's parents have decided that he will enroll in a liberal arts course in the state college near their hometown. Ramon has not really thought about the issue much himself, and he will probably do what they advise. James Marcia would classify Ramon's identity status as:
b. identity foreclosure.
Identity _____ is the status of individuals who have undergone a crisis and made a commitment.
d. achievement
Viva was torn between majoring in music or taking up an undergraduate program in engineering. She finally chose the latter, with a minor in music. Identify Viva's status of identity.
d. Identity achievement
A consensus is developing that the key changes in identity are more likely to take place in _____.
a. emerging adulthood—18 to 25 years of age
Which of the following is true of the timing of identity development?
b. College upperclassmen are more likely to be identity achieved than college freshmen.
Researchers believe that adolescents who develop the most positive sense of identity are ones who:
b. follow the MAMA cycle of identity.
In her teens, Josie went through a period of identity crisis where she could not decide if she wanted to be an engineer or a dancer. She resolved the issue by choosing to pursue a career as a dancer. However, after she married and had a baby, she found that she did not want to travel as much as before and gave up dancing to go back to school and get a degree in mathematics. She is now happy teaching at her local community college and taking dance classes for children over the weekend. Josie's trajectory seems to reflect:
c. the MAMA cycle of identity development.
_____ is the enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership.
c. Ethnic identity
Irena, age 16, has recently immigrated to the United States from the Ukraine. She enjoys many of the same things as her American friends but respects her culture's traditions and speaks to her parents in their native language. Irena seems to have formed a _____ identity.
b. bicultural
Jamal immigrated to the U.S. a few years back to pursue a doctorate in economics. He is likely to:
d. be secure in his ethnic identity and not change much.
The degree to which first-generation immigrants begin to feel _____ appears to be related to whether or not they learn English, develop social networks beyond their ethnic group, and become culturally competent in their new country.
b. "American"
Second-generation immigrants are more likely to think of themselves as "American," possibly because:
b. citizenship is granted at birth.
In a recent study of Navajo adolescents, affirmation and belonging to their ethnic heritage was linked to all of the following EXCEPT:
a. lower use of alcohol or drugs
Which of the following statements about religion and adolescents has research shown to be true?
d. Adolescent girls are more religious than are adolescent boys.
Adrian, 18 is a native of Sweden and Ahmed, also 18, is a native of Pakistan. According to the findings of the Analysis of the World Values Survey of 18- to 24-year-olds, which of the following is most likely to be true of the religious development of these two individuals?
b. Ahmed believes in God.
Many of the cognitive changes thought to influence religious development—such as adolescents' increased ability to think more abstractly, idealistically, and logically—involve:
a. Piaget's cognitive developmental theory.
Religious adolescents are more likely than nonreligious adolescents to:
c. engage in community service.
Stella has involved, responsive parents who support her in her choices as long as she adheres to certain basic rules that they have set for her, like keeping up her grades and coming home in time for dinner with her family on weeknights. Research indicates that Stella:
c. would be likely to share information about her whereabouts, friends, and activities.
Conflicts arise between parents and adolescents because:
a. few parents anticipate how strongly their adolescent will push for autonomy and responsibility.
Dudley, 15, is pushing to make his own decisions on what he studies in school, what clothes he wears, how late he stays out of the house, and so on, and gets angry and rebellious if he is not allowed complete control of his life. As a family counselor, you would recommend that Dudley's parents react to his bid for autonomy by:
d. letting him control areas of his life where he is capable of making reasonable decisions.
According to research on gender differences that characterize autonomy-granting in adolescence, which of the following adolescents is likely to be subjected to the most parental monitoring?
c. Maria, a Latino girl, being raised in a traditional family.
Joseph Allen and his colleagues found that adolescents who were securely attached to their parents at 14 years of age were more likely at 21 years of age to report:
c. that they were in an exclusive relationship.
The findings of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health of more than 12,000 adolescents suggest that, in order to steer their adolescents clear of smoking, drinking, marijuana use, violence, and initiation of sexual activity, parents should:
b. ensure that adolescents stay connected with the family.
Reggie, 16, gets into a lot of arguments with his parents. Going by what is generally observed about parent-adolescent conflict it is likely that most of the arguments center around:
d. everyday events of family life.
Conflict with parents most often escalates during:
a. early adolescence.
Which of the following statements does the new model of parent-adolescent relationships emphasize?
a. Parents serve as important attachment figures and support systems during adolescence.
One benefit of adolescent-parent conflict is that it:
b. helps adolescents become more autonomous.
As opposed to the trend in young children, teenagers typically prefer to have:
d. a smaller number of friendships that are more intense and intimate.
_____, the most influential theorist to discuss the importance of adolescent friendships, proposed that friends become increasingly important in meeting social needs in adolescence.
b. Harry Stack Sullivan
Harry Stack Sullivan believes most adolescent friendships are built on a need for _____.
c. intimacy
Adolescents who fail to develop close friendships tend to:
a. experience loneliness and a reduced sense of self-worth.
Carlos is feeling sad and disappointed that his girlfriend broke up with him. Who is he likely to confide in and turn to for reassurance?
b. His best friend
The spreading of disparaging rumors to harm someone is a form of negative gossip and is known as:
a. relational aggression.
Which of the following is true of gossip among adolescent peers?
c. The talk-featured, gossip aspect of friendship is more common in girls than boys.
Cynthia is encouraging her daughter to make friends with _____ since research has identified that as a consistent predictor of positive school achievement.
b. peers with high grade-point averages.
. Manfred is worried about his 16-year-old son hanging around much older people in the neighborhood. Research suggests that Manfred:
c. has reason to worry, since his son is more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors.
Which of the following is a strategy that adults would recommend to adolescents to help make friends?
d. Engage in prosocial behavior
At which grade level does conformity to peers peak?
b. Eighth and ninth grades
Priscilla is in the 8th grade. Her group of friends has recently started shoplifting at departmental stores. What is Priscilla likely to do in this scenario?
a. Priscilla will use her moral reasoning to determine if the behavior should be copied or not.
c. Priscilla will join her friends in the antisocial behavior.
Aaron is a junior in high school. Aaron's group of close friends have recently started engaging in vandalism and writing graffiti. What is Aaron likely to do?
b. He is less likely to also engage in these behaviors than he was 2 years ago.
Which of the following statements about the characteristics of a clique is NOT true?
b. The average number of people in a clique is 8 to 10.
At about which stage do cliques become more heterosexual and include members from both sexes?
d. In high school
Given what we know about the influence of peers on adolescents, an adolescent's desire to spend a great deal of time with a clique is probably:
d. either positive or negative, depending on what behavior the clique promotes.
Crowds are different from cliques in that:
c. they are larger and less personal.
When Valerie refers to other teens in her school as "jocks," "junkies," and "nerds," she is clubbing them into _____ based on their common activities or reputations.
b. crowds
Adolescents enter into romantic attractions and affiliations at about _____ years of age, where dating, if any, occur in a group setting.
b. 11 to 13
At approximately the age of _____ years, two types of romantic involvement occur—casual dating and dating in groups. These casual dating experiences are often short lived, last a few months at best, and usually only endure for a few weeks.
c. 14 to 16
Jenny and Jake, both 15, met in school with the help of common friends and have been going on casual dates with each other. Judging by the trend observed in romantic relations among adolescents their age, it is likely that:
a. this relationship will be short lived, lasting a usually only a few weeks or a few months at best.
At this age, romantic relations are characterized by strong emotional bonds more closely resembling those in adult romantic relationships.
d. 17 to 19
Early bloomers include:
c. 15 to 20 percent of 11 to 13 year olds who say that they currently are in a romantic relationship.
April, 12, broke up with her last boyfriend a few weeks back and is now dating another boy. Amber is:
b. an early bloomer.
Late bloomers comprise approximately 10 percent of _____ who say that they have had no experience with romantic relationships.
b. 17 to 19 year olds
Miriam, 18, has never had a boyfriend and has never been on a date. She is:
a. a late bloomer.
Which of the following statements about dating in gay male and lesbian youth is true?
b. Some heterosexual youth have experimented with a same-sex sexual experience.
Which ethnic group has the least conservative views regarding teenage dating?
d. Anglo-Americans
Research linking dating and romantic relationships with various measures of adolescent adjustment indicates that:
b. having more romantic experience was linked to a higher level of substance use and delinquency.
Which of the following statements regarding adolescent health is true?
d. Fewer adolescents around the world die now from malnutrition.
Which of the following is true of the trend in cross-cultural gender differences in sexual expression?
b. Gender differences in sexual expression appear to be narrowing over time.
Sita is girl who lives in India; Suki is a girl who lives in Japan. According to research, who is likely to have better access to education?
b. Suki
Which of the following adolescents would encounter the most cultural restriction on peer relations?
a. Fathima, an Arab girl
Adolescents in the U.S spend _____ on schoolwork as their East Asian counterparts do.
c. a little more than half the time
The amount of daily discretionary time that American adolescents have is _____ what adolescents have in East Asia.
b. significantly more than
A _____ is a ceremony or ritual that marks an individual's transition from one status to another, and mostly focuses on the transition to adult status.
d. rite of passage..
Rites of passage:
c. provides a forceful and discontinuous entry into the adult world.
The event that comes the closest to being a culture-wide right of passage in the United States is:
c. a high school graduation ceremony.
What distinguishes the locations where rites of passage are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa?
d. Low access to formal education
Identify the dual struggle often faced by immigrants to the U.S.
d. To preserve identity and to acculturate.
What could be a negative outcome related to adolescents who come from collectivist cultures where family obligation is strong, leading the adolescents to take on family responsibilities?
b. Negative impact on academic achievement
Which of the following is true about the ways in which ethnicity and socioeconomic status interact in research conclusions on ethnic minority adolescents?
a. The influence of ethnicity on adolescents is largely exaggerated.
Although Kesha lives in an affluent suburb with parents who are white-collar professionals, she still feels the stress of being an ethnic minority in America. This is because:
d. economic advantage does not entirely enable minorities to escape the prejudice, discrimination, and bias associated with being a member of an ethnic minority group.
The double disadvantage suffered by ethnic minority adolescents consists of:
c. prejudice and poverty.
A national study of the media habits of children and adolescents concluded that:
d. adolescents spend 6½ hours a day with various media.
Dylan does his homework in front of the television, while listening to music on his iPOD and also simultaneously text messaging his friends. This is indicative of a major trend in the use of technology, namely:
a. media multi-tasking.
Television viewing and video-game playing often peak in:
b. early adolescence.
Which of the following media do older adolescents spend more time on?
d. Computer
Which of the following is NOT necessarily a special concern related to Internet access and use by adolescents?
d. Avenue for self-disclosure
What does research reveal about trends in adolescents self-disclosing online?
b. About one-third of adolescents self-disclose better in person than online.
The number of juvenile court delinquency caseloads in the United States:
d. has decreased slightly since 1996.
Which of the following is NOT true of trends in juvenile delinquency in the U.S.?
a. About half of delinquency caseloads in 2005 involve females.
Early-onset antisocial behavior is defined as antisocial behavior before the age of _____.
d. 11
Early-onset antisocial behavior:
is associated with more mental health problems.
Shafton wants to know how he can keep his young son out of trouble. You would suggest that he do all of the following EXCEPT:
b. use harsh discipline.
The recent study by Marion Forgatch and her colleagues in which divorced mothers with sons were randomly assigned to an experimental group where mothers received extensive parenting training, and a control group where mothers received no parental training, indicated:
a. that improved parenting practices were linked with lower rates of delinquency.
Juvenile delinquency is negatively correlated with:
a. income.
Rates of ever experiencing major depressive disorder range from _____ percent for adolescents.
c. 15 to 20
Why do females have higher rates of depression than do males?
a. Females have more negative self-images than do males.
Ms. Carter is teaching parents about the risk factors for depression in teens. She should discuss all of the following EXCEPT:
c. late onset of puberty.
The best way to treat adolescent depression is:
d. a combination of antidepressant medication and CBT.
At which of the following stages does suicide behavior peak?
d. Emerging adulthood
Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death in 10- to 19-year-olds in the United States today.
b. third
Why are males more likely than females to succeed in committing suicide?
c. They use more lethal means than do females.
Who among the following are least likely to exhibit suicide behavior?
d. African American males
The four problems that affect the most adolescents are drug abuse, sexual problems, school-related problems, and _____.
b. juvenile delinquency.
As many as _____ of adolescents in the United States have been estimated to engage in all four of the problem behaviors common in adolescents such as drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, sexual problems, and school-related problems.
a. 10 percent
If a community wants to develop programs to help at-risk youths, an important component to include in the program would be:
a. intensive individual attention.
How early should intervention occur to prevent juvenile delinquency?
a. Preschool
The one commonality of successful programs developed to help at-risk youths is that they:
c. use a collaborative approach.
Fast Track is an intervention program that attempts to lower the risk of:
b. juvenile delinquency.