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382 terms

Radiologic Pathology

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following cannot be imaged by ultrasound?
1. Lung
2. Bone
3. Liver
C. 1& 2 only
A pattern of response of the body to some from of injury is termed what?
Disease
The following are all advantages of CT except:
A. Low radiation dose
B. Differentiation of a variety of soft tissues
C. Helical CT can complete scan in one breath hold
D. Images can be reformatted into any plane
A. Low Radiation dose
In every case, the end result of the inflammation process is regeneration of normal cells. T/F
false
Interference with the blood supply that deprives an organ of oxygen and nutrients is called:
Ischemia
An exaggerated response of tissues to stimuli is called:
hyperplasia
Which of the following arises from epithelial tissues?
A. Carcinoma
B. sarcoma
carcinoma
"Metastasis" means that a cancer has:
has come from a distant organ
The origin of a disease is it's:
etiology
The initial response of the body tissues to local injury consisting of 4 overlapping events
Inflammation
a disease that has no know underlying cause
idiopathic
a reduction in the size and or number of cells in an organ or tissue with a decrease in function
atrophy
infections of disease such a pneumocystis carinii and Kaposi's sacoma are common
AIDS
malignant tumors arising from connective tissue such as bone, muscle and cartilage.
sarcoma
an inherited disorder, with generalized connective tissue and cardiovascular problems
Marfan's syndrome
substances which stick to invading cells, bacteria, viruses,etc. to counteract them
antibody
a foreign "chemical" (drug, part of a virus or bacteria, or transplanted tissues) recognized as harmful.
antigen
a condition of few or no B and /or T cells resulting in the inability to fight infection
immunodeficiency
an excess of histamine release may cause this when injecting iodine contrast
anaphyllactic reaction
Atelectasis: easy or hard to penetrate
hard to penetrate
pheumothorax: easy or hard to penetrate
easy to penetrate
emphysema: easy or hard to penetrate
easy to penetrate
the number of rib pairs that should be seen on a chest film indicating good inspiratory effort is:
10
the maximum time of exposure to avoid heart motion as discussed in the book and in class is:
10 msec
the blood flow to the lungs that supply the lung parenchyma with oxygen and nutrients has what characteristic?
high pressure
which pathology is best demonstrated with inhalation and exhalation films?
pneumothorax
Alveolar, or air space pneumonia, in which exudate replaces air in the alveoli, creates the classic:
air bronchogram
precautions against airborne pathogens should be taken when radiographing patients with:
tuberculosis
the inhalation of asbestos creates a condition called asbestosis, which is one of the larger category of lung conditions called:
pneumoconiosis
a disease resulting in dilation of the distal bronchi that is best demonstrated by contrast bronchography is what?
bronchiectasis
an accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the lung and rib cage is called what?
plural effusion
an inflammation of the lung that can be caused by a variety of organisms, most commonly bacteria and viruses
pneumonia
a spherical density on a chest film consisting of a necrotic area containing purulent material
abscess
a disease of the lungs, in which collections of inflammatory cells collect around acid fast bacilli to form small masses. One example of this disease is the Miliary type.
tuberculosis
a disease in which obstructive and destructive changes in small airways lead to a dramatic increase in the volume of air in the lungs.
emphysema
a type of this disease, silicosis, occurs from inhalation of fine particles of silicon
pneumoconiosis
blood clot in the pulmonary arteries
pulmonary embolism
primary cancer from the bronchial tree mucosa
bronchogenic carcinoma
osteopetrosis: easy or hard to penetrate
hard to penetrate
osteoporosis: easy or hard to penetrate
Easy to penetrate
marble bone: easy or hard to penetrate
easy to penetrate
acromegaly: easy or hard to penetrate
hard to penetrate
a cell that produces new bone around the outer circumference of the bone is called what?
osteoblast
an example of a congenital bone disease is what?
spinda bifida
which of the following diseases are metabolic in origin?
gout
Excess of blood uric acid levels resulting in crystals deposited in the joints
gout
deficiency of vitamin D in diet
rickets
deficiency of calcium in the bones
osteoporosis
diminished proliferation of cartilage in the growth plates
achondroplasia
be careful with iodine contrast medium, as this disease process produces BenceJones protein in urine
multiple myeloma
Inflammation of a bone by introduction of an infectious organism (possibly during surgery or another aseptic procedure) is called what?
osteomyelitis
A variant of rheumatoid arthritis found is the S/I joint, moving up the lumbar spine creating the "bamboo spine" effect is called what?
ankylosing spondylitis
Radiographic visualization of calcification in adjancent tendons, and in or around inflamed fluid filled sacs (that reduce friction around joints) is known as:
bursitis
an incomplete fracture with the opposite cortex intact describes what?
Greenstick
Fracture of arch of C2
hangman's fracture
Fracture of the fifth metatcarpal
boxer's fracture
fracture of the shaft of the ulna with radial head dislocation
Monteggia fracture
Fracture of distal radius
colles fracture
horizontal fracture of lumbar vertebral body
seat belt fracture
ischemic necrosis
may be caused by thrombosis, frequently involves the femoral head, may need a reduction in technique
a benign projection of bone with a cartilage like cap occurring around the knee in children or adolescents is
osteochondroma
a congenital defect in which posterior elements of the spinal canal fail to fuse properly
spina bifida
an inherited disorder characterized by multiple fractures and the formation of wormian bones
osteogenesis imperfecta
a metabolic disease in which a generalized or localized deficiency of bone matrix causes a decreased mass per unit volume of bone. Caused by aging and hormonal changes
osteoporosis
destruction of bone followed by reparative process resulting in thickened, deformed and weakened bony structures
Paget's disease
a cancerous condition of the bone demonstrating a classic sunburst pattern
osteogenic sarcoma
a disease of unknown cause that is seen as a non-suppuartive (noninfectious) inflammatory disease of the small joints leading to a crippling deformity.
rheumatoid arthritis
a degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of joint cartilage due to wear and tear of weight bearing joints
osteoarthritis
with some or all of the stomach found above the diaphragm, this is the most frequent abnormality detected on UGI examination
hital hernia
Dilated veins in the wall of the esophagus; commonly the result of increased portal vein pressure
esophageal varices
inflammation of the stomach created by a variety of irritants including alcohol, corrosive agents, and infection
gastritis
most common form of peptic ulcer disease
duodenal ulcer
appearance of gas filled loops of the small bowel, but little gas in the large bowel.
mechanical small bowel obstruction
appearance of gas filed loops of small bowel and large bowel. Occurs to some extent in all abdominal surgery patients.
adynamic ileus
Also called Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract
regional enteritis
a telescoping type of bowel obstruction
intussusception
outpounchings in the colon wall representing acquired herniations of mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layers at points of weakness in the bowel wall
diverticulosis
"apple core"lesions are a common radiographic depiction of this disease
colon cancer
the long term destruction of liver cells and structure, the main cause being chronic alcoholism
cirrhosis
the most common malignant tumor involving the liver orginating from other organs
hepatic metastases
a mass of foreign material in the stomach ( ex: hair ball)
bezoar
the concentric circles seen on the small bowel
valvulae conniventes
the large concentric folds seen in the large bowel
haustra
this substance is stored in the liver after uptaking excess glucose
glycogen
finger like projections into the lumen of the small bowel for absorption of nutrients
villi
a twisting of the bowel upon itself resulting in strangulation and obstrustion
volvulus
inflammation of the tufts of capillaries that filter the blood within the kidney
glomeruloephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and the interstitial tissue between the kidney tubules
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the urinary bladder
cystits
also called renal cell carcinoma
polycystic kidney disease
a malignant neoplasm of embryonic renal tissue in the child, usually growing very large in size
Wilms tumor
a substance given off by the kidneys which will raise blood pressure:
renin
the area in the kindey's nephrons in which water and nutrients are reabsorbed:
proximal convoluted tubule
Gas forming bacteria produce a pneumogram of the kidney in which urinary disease?
emphysematous pyelonephritis
a scout film is always taken before an IVP:
to check for calcifications in the urinary system
a radiolucent stone will appear as:
a filling defect in the structure on the film
Which of the following do not belong?
A. Foley catheter
B. Miller-Abbott Tube
C. ureteral stent
D. nephrostomy tube
Miller-Abbot tube
Deoxygenated blood travels in what vessel?
portal vein, pulmonary artery, superior vena cava
Assessing damage to the myocardium after a heart attack is best demonstrated using what examination?
nuclear medicine perfusion scan
Contraction of which chamber of the heart forces oxygenated blood into the aorta?
Left ventricle
A potentially life-threatening condition that usally begins as a tear in the intima above the aortic valve is an:
aortic coarctation
produces the Coeur en sabor sign
tetraolgy of Fallot
A narrowing of the aorta just beyond the branching of the head and arms
coarctation
this condition is the inability of the heart to propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume
congestive heart failure
an accumulation of fluid around the heart
pericardial effusion
temporary oxygen insufficiency to the heart muscle cause severe chest pain termed:
Angina pectoris
what procedure is used to best determine the presence of coronary artery disease?
coronary arteriogram
the procedure of using a balloon to dilate narrowed coronary arteries is named:
percutaneous translminal angioplasty
a localized dilation of an artery involving the entire circumference of the artery wall is called what?
fusiform aneurysm
a non moving clot that forms in a vessel is termed an:
thrombus
A clot that breaks loose from a lower extremity vein will most likely cause an obstruction of blood flow in what organ:
heart
the term ______ refers to an inability of the heart ot propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume
congestive heart failure
an elevation of the pulmonary venous pressure is the most common cause of :
pulmonary edema
the most sensitive and specific noninvasive method of diagnosing mitral stenosis is:
cardiac arteriography
a major complication of rheumatic disease would be:
mitral stenosis
The heart has a specialized pacemaker named the:
Sinoatrial node
The accumulation of fluid within the pericaridal space surrounding the heart is termed __________.
pericardial effusion
An autoimmune disease
rheumatic heart disease
disorder characterized by intramural folds of fibrous endothelial tissue:
fibromuscular dysplasia
begins as a tear in the intima
aortic dissection
process in which fatty deposits develop in the intima and cause progressive narrowing
atherosclerosis
can be caused by syphillis, endocarditis or Marfan's syndrome
aortic insufficiency
Subdural hematoma is probably caused by ______ bleeding.
Venous
A demyelinating disorder:
Multiple sclerosis
movement of the brain within the skull:
a cerebral contusion
caused by a direct blow to the orbit
blowout fracture
inflammation of pia mater
meningitis
Plain radiographs of the facial bones are most diagnositc with the patient in the _______ position if possible.
Erect
the most common primary brain tumor is a _______
Glioma
A benign tumor that arises from the arachnoid lining cells and is attached to the dura is named:
meningioma
the most common neoplasm's that metastasize to the brain arise in the ________ and _________.
lung, breast
a condition in which brain impulses are temporarily disturbed, resulting in conditions from unconsciousness to violent seizures is termed what?
epilepsy
an inherited condition resulting in dementia and choreifom (jerky and uncontrolled) movements in the early to middle adult years is what?
Huntington's disease
Cerebral spinal fluid accumulation in the ventricular system caused by an obstruction somewhere in the system is called what?
hydrocephalus
the mass of white matter that connects the two brain hemispheres together.
corpus callosum
works with he cerebrum to produce skilled movements by coordinating groups of muscles.
Cerebellum
primarily functions as a relay center that receives and processes sensory infomation
Thalamus
A threadlike extension traveling away from a nerve body
axon
a condition in which an increase in red blood cells caused the hyperplasia of the marrow or secondarily living at high altitude is:
polycythemia
A neoplastic proliferaion of white blood cells
leukemia
A sex-linked recessive gene disease that only appears in males. Patients lack factor VII in the serum causing spontaneous hemorrhage or severe bleeding
hemophilia
a general term for the decrease in the amount of oxygen carrying hemoglobin in the blood.
anemia
The accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the spaces between the cells or in body cavities is termed:
edema
_________ is the process by which white blood cells surround infectious organisms.
Phagocytosis
a tumor-like scar is referred to as a:
Keliod
Inflammation with pus formation is termed:
Suppurative
An interruption in the blood supply to an organ or body part is referred to as:
ischemia
A localized area of ischemic necrosis in an organ or tissue is termed:
infarct
a swelling caused by bleeding into an enclosed area is termed
hematoma
A decrease in function of an organ or tissue because of a reduction in the size or number of cells is termed:
atrophy
The term ______ means new growth.
neoplasia
The term for benign epithelial neoplasms that have a gland like pattern is a :
adenoma
the study of determinants of disease events in given populations is:
epidemiology
Statistically, __________ reflects the number of deaths by disease per population.
mortality
the rate that an illness or abnormality occurs is called:
morbidity
Gowns, gloves, masks, shoe covers, and eye protection used to prevent transmission of potential infectious agents are:
Personal Protective equipment (PPE)
__________ determines the additional protective equipment needed to prevent the spread of highly infectious pathogens through contact, droplet or airborne transmission.
Transmission based precuations
Screeening mammography recommends that ______ and __________ projections be performed.
A. Carniocaudal, mediolateral oblique
Ultrasound depends on the echo of the high frequency sound waves produced by the transducer. Tissue that produces a strong reflection is known as ___________.
hyperechoic or echogenic
ultrasound is limited by acoustic barriers, such as:
air and bone
The modality that views tissue from multiple angles using a narrow x-ray beam is:
CT
the CT technique using continuous scanning while the table moves the patient through the gantry is ___________.
Helical Scanning
Currently the term multi-dector CT indicates:
16-320 multi-dector array
Which of the following is not a postprocessing imaging technique for CT?
A. Volume rendering
B. Virtual reality
C. Maximum intensity projection
D. Fat suppression
Fat Suppression
To create an image in MRI, the technology depends on _________.
hydrogen atoms and their response to radiofrequency pulses
Multiple-pulse sequences may be required to illustrate pathophysiologic changes. Examples of MRI pulse sequences are ________.
T1 and T2 weighted images
Nuclear medicine and SPECT imaging rely on scintillation cameras to detect:
Gamma rays
PET imaging is especially useful to evaluate ________.
preradiation and postradiation or chemotherapy
Hybrid imaging equipment combines ____________.
two modalities simultaneously to produce one set of images.
Two common complications of intubation an barotrauma _________ and _______________.
pneumothorax, pneumomediastuim
A catheter commonly used to measure cardiac output and central venous pressure is the ________.
Swanz-Ganz catheter
The optimal location for a central venous catheter is where the brachiocephalic veins join to form the :
Superior Vena Cava
An overexposed radiograph is often requested for visualizing transvenous endocardiac pacemakers to demonstrate both the ____________ and the ______.
Generator, electrodes
The most common complication associated with the Swan-Ganz catheter is ____________ distal to the catheter tip.
infarction
_____________ is a disease of newborns characterized by progressive underaeration of the lungs and a granular appearance.
hylaline membrane disease
________ is a hereditary disease in which thick mucus is secreted by all the exocrine glands.
Cystic Fibrosis
A necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent or puslike material is called an ________
lung abscess
What radiographic procedure is often requird to confirm the diagnosis of bronchiectasis when the results of a routine chest radiographs are inconclusive?
Bronchography
Flattening of the domes of the diaphragm, increased AP diameter of the chest and increased lucency of the retrostrenal air apace are suggestive of diagnosis of ________
Empysema
The three most common pneumoconioses are __________, _____________, and __________.
silicosis, asbesotosis and antracosis
An abnormal vascular communication between a pulmonary artery and a pulmonary vein is termed __________
pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
A granulomatous disease of unknown origin that usually affects women more than men and African-Americans more than whites, and whose presence is most often identified on screening chest radiographys is ____.
Sarcoidosis
Pus in the pleural space is called:
empyema
A lung inflammation caused by bacteria or viruses is called:
pneumonia
Name two common types of pulmonary mycoses.
histopasmosis, coccidioid mycosis
For the radiographer's safety, it is important to remember that tuberculosis is spread mainly by _______-which produces infectious _________.
coughing, droplets
What medical term is used to describe the entry of air into the pleural space?
pneumothorax
An increased volume of air in the lungs is seen in _______.
Emphysema
inhalation of irritating dusts leading to chronic inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis is called __________
pneumoconiosis
A malignant pleural neoplasm that results from asbestosis is __________________.
mesothelimoa
the trapping of bacteria in the pulmonary circulation that occurs in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse is called:
septic embolism
reduced air volume within a lung leading to collapse is termed:
atelactasis
blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest can produce________, which appears as streaks of air that outline the muscles of the thorax and sometimes the neck
subcutaneous emphysema
at what costal interspace does the diaphragm lie when the lungs are fully inflated?
Tenth
air collecting behind the sternum and dissecting into the soft tissue of the neck is called _________.
mediastinal emphysema
an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space sometimes caused by heart failure or pulmonary embolus is called:
Effusion
The shaft of the long bone is termed the:
diaphysis
the end of a long bone is referred to as the :
epiphyis
The special types of cells responsible for the diameter growth of bones are:
osetoblasts, and chondroblasts
the common areas of the body radiographed to determine bone age are:
wrist and hand
what pathologic conditions is present if the posterior elements of one of or more vertebrae fail to unite?
spina bifida
Aging and postmenopausal hormonal changes the major causes of generalized ____________.
osteoporosis
An inherited generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by multiple fractures and bluish color of the sclera of the eye is ________.
osteogenesis
Lack of vitamin D in the diet of infants and children can cause a systemic disease called
Rickets
A disorder of metabolism causing an increased blood level of uric acid is callled:
gout
On a radiograph image, dense transverse bands extending across the metaphyses of the long bones are commonly seen in?
lead poisoning
A benign projection of bone with a cartilage like cap occurring around the knee in children or adolescents is:
osetochondroma
An example of a malignant bone tumor is:
Osteogenicsarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma
The form of noninfectious arthritis characterized by osteoporosis, soft tissue swelling and erosions of the metacarpophalangeal joints and ulnar styloid processes is:
rheumatoid arthritis
The extremely common form of arthritis that is characterized by loss of joint cartilage and reactive new bone growth and that is part of the normal wear of aging is:
osteoarthritis
Inflammation of the small fluid-filled sacs that located around joints and that reduce friction is termed:
bursitis
In what type of fracture is the skin broken?
compond
what type of fracture consists of more than two fragments?
comminuted
What term applies to the new calcium deposits that unite fracture sites?
Callus
What type of fracture occurs in bone weakened by some preexisting condition, such as a metastatic lesion or muliple myeloma?
pathologic
What is the name for the type of fracture that can occur from falling on the outstretched hand and that involves the distal portion of the radius?
Colles
What name is applied to a fracture involving both malleoli?
Pott's
What is the name applied to the fracture resulting from acute hyperextension of the head on the neck that usually affects C2 and C3?
Hangman's
What area of the spine does a clay shoveler's fracture involve?
lower cervical and upper thoracic
Diagnosis of an intervertebral disk herniation requires which radiographic procedure?
myelography, MRI
An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (more than 20 degrees) is known as:
scoliosis
What medical term refers to a cleft in the pars interarticularis commonly involving the fifth lumbar vertebrae?
spondylolysis
What pathologic condition sometimes occurs after trauma, causing an interrupted blood supply to a bone?
ischemic necrosis
The imaging criteria for pyelography are the same as for an abdominal radiograph but must include the area from the _____ to the _______
diaphragm, to the inferior bladder
What organ of the body plays an essential role in maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood and body fluids and also the electrolyte balance?
kidney
A bacterial inflammation of the kidney and the renal pelvis is termed:
pyelonephritis
The medical term used to describe dilated calyces and renal pelvis is:
hydronphrosis
What is the name for the most common abdominal neoplasm of infants and children?
Wilms tumor
What is the name of the most common fusion anomaly of the kidneys?
horseshoe kidney
What is the name for a cystic dilation of the distal ureter near the bladder?
ureterocele
Name the first portion of the kidney to become visible after injection of contrast agent:
nephron
What term is used to describe a kidney not in the normal area of the abdomen?
ectopic
The medical term for painful urination is:
dysuria
When diseases of the hematopoietic system result in demineralization of bone, the radiographer must be alert to the possibility of ________
pathologic fracture
Red blood cells are called ________
erythrocytes
Platelets are called:
thrombocytes
White blood cells are called _____
leukocytes
The smallest blood cells, platelets are essential for what process?
clotting
lymphocytes play a major role in the _______ system
immune
Which term refers to a decrease in the amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in the blood?
anemia
What type of anemia can cause painful bone infarcts and is generally confined to African-Americans?
Sickle Cell
A hematologic disorder characterized by an increase in the production of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and platelets is:
polycythemia vera
A cancerous disease of the hematopoietic system characterized by an increase in white blood cells is:
leukemia
What is the name of an inherited anomaly of blood coagulation?
hemophilia
What pathologic condition consists of a deficiency in the number of platelets resulting in spontaneous hemorrhages in the skin, internal organs and mucous membranes of the mouth.
purpura
Visualization of which of the following structures indicates that the correct contrast scale has been used for a plain abdominal radiograph?
Liver, kidneys, and psoas muscle shadows,
Lumbar spine and transverse processess
The rhythmic smooth muscle contractions found in the upper gastrointestinal system are called:
peristalsis
The greatest amount of digestion occurs in which portion of the intestines?
duodenum
Detoxification of poisonous substances takes place in which organ?
liver
which organ controls the level of glucose in the circulating blood?
pancreas
the telescoping of one part of the intestinal tract into another is termed:
intussuception
Twisting of the bowl upon itself is termed:
volvulus
What is now considered to be the major imaging modality for the demonstration of gallstones?
ultrasound
what is the major cause of cirrhosis in the United states and Europe?
alcoholism
Rupture of the spleen as a result of blunt abdominal trauma can be best demonstrated by what imaging procedure?
CT
If a patient is too ill to stand, what projection can be used to demonstrate pneumoperitoneum?
left lateral decubitus, patient on left side
Extensive calcification in the wall of the gallbladder is termed :
porcelain gallbladder
Varicose veins of the rectum are termed:
hemorrhoids
"apple core" and "napkin ring" are common descriptive terms for annular carcinoma of the ______.
colon
Crohn's disease occurs in what organs?
colon, small bowel, stomach
The presence of large amounts of gas and fluid in uniformly dilated loops of small and large bowel, often seen after abdominal surgery, is termed:
adynamic ileus
What medical term is used to denote difficulty in swallowing?
dysphagia
Gastric contents that are mixed with hydochloric acid and pepsin are called:
Chyme
To demonstrate esophageal reflux, the patient is often asked to perform the :
Valsalva maneuver
An abnormal connection between the esophagus and trachea is termed an:
fistula
An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity is termed:
ascites
Herniations, or outpouchings, of the walls of a hollow organ are termed:
diverticula
A colonic intussusception can sometimes be reduced by what radiographic procedure?
Barium enema
Patients older than 40 years with a history of difficulty in swallowing are usually assumed, until proven otherwise, to have what pathologic condition?
esophageal hernia
what is the most common manifestation of peptic ulcer disease?
duodenal ulcer
If loops of bowel are distended by abnormally large amounts of air and are occupying the central portion of the abdomen, the patient most likely has a:
small bowel obstruction
The muscle becomes hypertrophic preventing the normal emptying of the stomach in cases of
gastric carcinoma
the most prevalent inflammatory disease of the liver most commonly caused by a viral infection or a reaction to drugs and toxins is:
hepatitis
Heart rate is controlled by the _________ nervous system.
autonomic
The_______ valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle, whereas the ________ valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
Mitral, tricuspid
The general circulation of the body is termed the _______ circulation.
systemic
The contracting phase of the heart is termed the ________, whereas the relaxation phase is termed __________.
systole, diastole
Contraction of which chamber of the heart forces oxygenated blood into the aorta?
Left ventricle
Oxygenated blood reaches the heart muscle by way of the _________.
Left coronary artery, right coronary artery
The heart has a specialized pacemaker named the _____.
sinoatrial node
Which factors lead to coronary artery disease?
Lack of exercise, obesity, hypertension, smoking, high cholesterol diet
Temporary oxygen insufficiency to the heart muscle causes severe chest pain termed:
angina pectoris
Arterial disease caused by fatty deposits on the inner arterial wall is termed:
arteriosclerosis
what radiographic procedure is used to determine the presence of coronary artery disease?
coronary arteriogram
The procedure in which a balloon is used to dilate narrowed coronary arteries is named________.
percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
Which term refers to an inability of the heart to propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume?
congestive heart failure
An elevation of the pulmonary venous pressure is the most common cause of __________.
pulmonary edema
The leading cause of strokes and CHF is:
hypertension
A localized bulging or dilatation of an artery is termed:
aneurysm
What is the modality of choice for demonstration of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
ultrasound
A congenital narrowing or constriction of the thoracic aorta is referred to as:
coarctation
The ________ of the heart is/are the major site of damage from rheumatic fever.
valves
The most sensitive and specific noninvasive method of diagnosing mitral stenosis is:
echocardiography
The accumulation of fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart is termed:
pericardial effusion
The invasive procedure for determining deep venous thrombosis is:
venography
The most accurate screening procedure for assessing renovascular lesions is:
arteriography
A potentially life threatening condition that usually begins as a tear in the intima above the aortic valve is an:
aoritc dissection
The imaging modality of choice to evaluate patients with suspected neurologic dysfunction caused by head trauma is:
CT
arterial bleeding sometimes associated with head trauma can cause _________ hematomas.
epidural
Venous bleeding sometimes associated with head trauma can cause _______ hematomas
subdural
Movement of the brain within the calvaria following blunt trauma to the skull sometimes results in a cerebral ______.
contusion
bleeding into the ventricular system caused by injury to surface veins, cerebral parenchyma or cortical arteries can cause ___________ hemorrhage.
subarachnoid
Plain radiographs of the facial bones should always be made with the patient in the ________ position if possible
erect
the most common primary brain tumor is a ______.
glioma
A benign tumor that arises from arachnoid lining cells and is attached to the dura is called a:
meningioma
The most common neoplasms that metastasize to the brain arise in the ______ and ________
lung, breast
A viral inflammation of the brain and meninges is called:
encephalitis
the best imaging procedures of choice to evaluate brain abscesses:
CT
The two imaging procedures of choice to evaluate the extent of a stroke in the brain are _________ and ________,
CT, MRI
The acronym TIA stands for ___________.
transient ischemic attack
The imaging modality of choice to demonstrate the demylination that are characteristic of multiple sclerosis is:
MRI
A condition in which brain impulses are temporarily disturbed, the results of which range form loss of consciousness to violent seizures is termed:
epilepsy
A diffuse form of progressive cerebral atrophy that develops at an earlier age than the senile period is called:
alzheimers
A progressive degenerative disease characterized by involuntary tremors of the extremities that disappear with voluntary movement is named:
Parkinson's
Sinus radiographs should be taken using _______ beam and the patient in the ______ position
horizontal , erect
The pathologic condition that refers to dilation of the ventricular system and is usually associated with increased intracranial pressure is _________.
hydrocephalus
If a patient needing facial or sinus radiographs is unable to stand or sit erect,an __________ using an ________ beam may be performed to demonstrate any air-fluid levels that may be present
crosstable lateral, horizontal
What organ in the body is responsible for the release or insulin?
pancreas
What organ in the body is responsible for the release of glucagon?
pancreas
The _______ glands secrete several types of steroid hormones and lie about each kidney.
adrenal
What hormone has the ability to constrict some blood vessels while dilating others to shunt blood to active muscles where oxygen and nutrients are needed?
epinephrine
What hormones are known as the fight-or-flight hormones?
adrenaline, norepinephrine
Enlargement of the adrenal glands is best demonstrated by what diagnostic modality?
CT
What pathologic condition is characterized by obesity of the trunk of the body, a fat pad behind the shoulders and a moon shaped face?
Cushing's syndrome
One complication of Cushing's syndrome that radiographers must be cautious of is:
hypercalciuria
Excessive administration of ______ is the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency.
steroids
The second most common malignancy in children is
neuroblastoma
The ________ controls the hormones secretion of the pituitary gland.
medulla oblongato
Enlargement of the hands, feet and face is a characteristic of what pathologic condition?
acromegaly
A pea-sized gland suspended for the base of the brain, sometimes referred to as the master gland, is called the ________.
pituitary
What is the name for the butterfly- shaped gland located at the level of the larynx?
thyroid
Thyroid tissue is best demonstrated by what imaging modality?
radionuclide imaging
Insufficient synthesis of thyroid hormone can lead to what pathologic condition?
hypothyroidism
What is the name for an enlargement of the thyroid gland that does not result form an inflammatory or neoplastic process?
goiter
There is a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer in people who received __________.
neck irradiation in childhood
If beta cells in the islets of Langehans fail to secrete insulin, what pathologic condition results?
diabetes
A diabetic patient who receives insulin before reporting to the radiology department for a upper gastrointestinal study should be monitored by the radiorapher for any signs of developing?
hypoglycemic shock
The most common complication and leading cause of death in diabetic patients is:
Renal disease
In addition to Ultrasound, what are the main radiographic studies currently used for the female reproductive system?
hysterosalpingography, mammography
The formation of sperm is known as:
spermatogensis
What male hormone helps to regulate metabolism by promoting growth of skeletal muscles and is considered responsible for the greater degree of muscle development in men?
testoterone
Severing of the vas deferens to create sterility is termed:
vasectomy
The second most common cause of malignancy in men is :
cancer of the prostate
What imaging modality for demonstrating the prostate gland uses a probe inserted into the rectum?
ultrasound
T/F Ultrasound studies of the prostate gland cannot always determine the malignant or benign status of prostatic disease.
True
Prostatic carcinoma can often spread through the bloodstream to the bone and can sometimes cause sclerosis of an entire vertebra. his pathologic condition is termed:
ivory vertebra
What screening technique is usually employed to identify the location of an undescended testicle?
ultrasound
what is the term to describe the twisting of the male gonad on its pedicle?
testicular torsion
the most common neoplasms in men between 20-35years of age are tumors that tend to metastasize through the _______ system.
testicular, lymphatic
The rupture and expulsion of the mature ovum into the pelvic cavity is termed:
ovulation
A pregnancy that occurs in a fallopian tube or in the pelvic cavity is termed:
ectopic
What is the name of the radiographic procedure used to demonstrate the patency or status of the fallopian tubes?
hysterosalpingography
Untreated _______ can lead to cerebral cortical lesions, causing mental disorders, and involvement of the skeletal system and affects infants born to infected mothers
syphillis
The most common type of germ cell tumor, often containing teeth, hair, and fatty material is called:
Demoid/ teratoma
Leiomyomas, more commonly referred to as ______, are benign smooth-muscle tumors of uterus.
Fibroids
The most common malignancy among women occurs in the :
Breast
The second most common form of cancer in women is:
Carcinoma of the cervix
A vitamin C deficiency that years ago was common among sailors because of their lack of fresh fruit and vegetables is termed:
Scurvy
_____ Is a vitamin deficiency disease that occurs primarily in countries in which polished rice is the main staple.
beriberi
A deficiency of niacin, characterized by reddening and scaling o exposed skin, vomiting, diarrhea, and nervous and mental disorders is termed ______.
peliagra
Vitamin ______ is necessary in the blood clotting mechanism.
Vitamin K
A lack of vitamin _____ can result in night blindness.
A
When caloric intake consistently exceeds the amount needed for the body to function ________ occurs.
obesity
a disease of young to middle aged women that is most likely an immune complex disease, that can affect several systems of the body and that is characterized by a butterfly-shaped rash across the nose and cheeks is
systemic lupus erthematosus
A very malignant form of skin cancer ,capable of metastasizing throughout the body ,is ______.
melanoma
An inherited muscular disease characterized by severe weakness and eventual death from respiratory muscle failure of pneumonia is ________.
muscular dystrophy
The radiographer should be very alert to the possibility of ______ in patients with muscular dystrophy who lack normal swallowing ability.
aspiration
name three trisomy disorders:
down syndrome, turner's syndrome, klinefelter's syndrome
The ______ syndrome occurs when a female has only one X chromosome
Turner's syndrome
Arachnodactyly, or spider-like digits, occurs in which two hereditary disorders?
Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria
A term that refers to the genes inherited from each parent are the same fr a particular trait
homozygous
A term that refers to genes inherited from each parent that differ for a particular trait
heterozygous
Genes that always produce an effect
dominant genes
An alteration in the DNA structure that may become permanent hereditary changes if they affect the gonadal cells.
mutation
This disorder results when both parents carry it's gene. The trait does not usually affect the parents.
Autosomal recessive
Microbubble fluids may be used as a contrast agent with this type of modality
Ultrasound
Radioactive glucose molecules used as a contrast agent may be used with this type of modality
PET scans
Gadolinium chelates used as a contrast agent in this type of modality
MRI scans
Iodine contrast agents may be used in this type of modality
CT scans
scan provides physiological information rather than specific anatomic information in this modality
PET scans
These images can be fused with PET images to form a more diagnostic study.
CT scans
An example of a cytotoxic immune reaction would be:
Transfusion reaction