The following are all advantages of CT except:
A. Low radiation dose
B. Differentiation of a variety of soft tissues
C. Helical CT can complete scan in one breath hold
D. Images can be reformatted into any plane
A. Low Radiation dose
In every case, the end result of the inflammation process is regeneration of normal cells. T/F
Interference with the blood supply that deprives an organ of oxygen and nutrients is called:
The initial response of the body tissues to local injury consisting of 4 overlapping events
a reduction in the size and or number of cells in an organ or tissue with a decrease in function
an inherited disorder, with generalized connective tissue and cardiovascular problems
a foreign "chemical" (drug, part of a virus or bacteria, or transplanted tissues) recognized as harmful.
a condition of few or no B and /or T cells resulting in the inability to fight infection
the number of rib pairs that should be seen on a chest film indicating good inspiratory effort is:
the maximum time of exposure to avoid heart motion as discussed in the book and in class is:
the blood flow to the lungs that supply the lung parenchyma with oxygen and nutrients has what characteristic?
Alveolar, or air space pneumonia, in which exudate replaces air in the alveoli, creates the classic:
precautions against airborne pathogens should be taken when radiographing patients with:
the inhalation of asbestos creates a condition called asbestosis, which is one of the larger category of lung conditions called:
a disease resulting in dilation of the distal bronchi that is best demonstrated by contrast bronchography is what?
an accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the lung and rib cage is called what?
an inflammation of the lung that can be caused by a variety of organisms, most commonly bacteria and viruses
a spherical density on a chest film consisting of a necrotic area containing purulent material
a disease of the lungs, in which collections of inflammatory cells collect around acid fast bacilli to form small masses. One example of this disease is the Miliary type.
a disease in which obstructive and destructive changes in small airways lead to a dramatic increase in the volume of air in the lungs.
a type of this disease, silicosis, occurs from inhalation of fine particles of silicon
be careful with iodine contrast medium, as this disease process produces BenceJones protein in urine
Inflammation of a bone by introduction of an infectious organism (possibly during surgery or another aseptic procedure) is called what?
A variant of rheumatoid arthritis found is the S/I joint, moving up the lumbar spine creating the "bamboo spine" effect is called what?
Radiographic visualization of calcification in adjancent tendons, and in or around inflamed fluid filled sacs (that reduce friction around joints) is known as:
may be caused by thrombosis, frequently involves the femoral head, may need a reduction in technique
a benign projection of bone with a cartilage like cap occurring around the knee in children or adolescents is
a congenital defect in which posterior elements of the spinal canal fail to fuse properly
an inherited disorder characterized by multiple fractures and the formation of wormian bones
a metabolic disease in which a generalized or localized deficiency of bone matrix causes a decreased mass per unit volume of bone. Caused by aging and hormonal changes
destruction of bone followed by reparative process resulting in thickened, deformed and weakened bony structures
a disease of unknown cause that is seen as a non-suppuartive (noninfectious) inflammatory disease of the small joints leading to a crippling deformity.
a degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of joint cartilage due to wear and tear of weight bearing joints
with some or all of the stomach found above the diaphragm, this is the most frequent abnormality detected on UGI examination
Dilated veins in the wall of the esophagus; commonly the result of increased portal vein pressure
inflammation of the stomach created by a variety of irritants including alcohol, corrosive agents, and infection
appearance of gas filled loops of the small bowel, but little gas in the large bowel.
mechanical small bowel obstruction
appearance of gas filed loops of small bowel and large bowel. Occurs to some extent in all abdominal surgery patients.
Also called Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract
outpounchings in the colon wall representing acquired herniations of mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layers at points of weakness in the bowel wall
the long term destruction of liver cells and structure, the main cause being chronic alcoholism
inflammation of the renal pelvis and the interstitial tissue between the kidney tubules
a malignant neoplasm of embryonic renal tissue in the child, usually growing very large in size
the area in the kindey's nephrons in which water and nutrients are reabsorbed:
proximal convoluted tubule
Gas forming bacteria produce a pneumogram of the kidney in which urinary disease?
Which of the following do not belong?
A. Foley catheter
B. Miller-Abbott Tube
C. ureteral stent
D. nephrostomy tube
Assessing damage to the myocardium after a heart attack is best demonstrated using what examination?
nuclear medicine perfusion scan
A potentially life-threatening condition that usally begins as a tear in the intima above the aortic valve is an:
this condition is the inability of the heart to propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume
congestive heart failure
what procedure is used to best determine the presence of coronary artery disease?
the procedure of using a balloon to dilate narrowed coronary arteries is named:
percutaneous translminal angioplasty
a localized dilation of an artery involving the entire circumference of the artery wall is called what?
A clot that breaks loose from a lower extremity vein will most likely cause an obstruction of blood flow in what organ:
the term ______ refers to an inability of the heart ot propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume
congestive heart failure
the most sensitive and specific noninvasive method of diagnosing mitral stenosis is:
The accumulation of fluid within the pericaridal space surrounding the heart is termed __________.
process in which fatty deposits develop in the intima and cause progressive narrowing
Plain radiographs of the facial bones are most diagnositc with the patient in the _______ position if possible.
A benign tumor that arises from the arachnoid lining cells and is attached to the dura is named:
the most common neoplasm's that metastasize to the brain arise in the ________ and _________.
a condition in which brain impulses are temporarily disturbed, resulting in conditions from unconsciousness to violent seizures is termed what?
an inherited condition resulting in dementia and choreifom (jerky and uncontrolled) movements in the early to middle adult years is what?
Cerebral spinal fluid accumulation in the ventricular system caused by an obstruction somewhere in the system is called what?
a condition in which an increase in red blood cells caused the hyperplasia of the marrow or secondarily living at high altitude is:
A sex-linked recessive gene disease that only appears in males. Patients lack factor VII in the serum causing spontaneous hemorrhage or severe bleeding
The accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the spaces between the cells or in body cavities is termed:
A decrease in function of an organ or tissue because of a reduction in the size or number of cells is termed:
Gowns, gloves, masks, shoe covers, and eye protection used to prevent transmission of potential infectious agents are:
Personal Protective equipment (PPE)
__________ determines the additional protective equipment needed to prevent the spread of highly infectious pathogens through contact, droplet or airborne transmission.
Transmission based precuations
Screeening mammography recommends that ______ and __________ projections be performed.
A. Carniocaudal, mediolateral oblique
Ultrasound depends on the echo of the high frequency sound waves produced by the transducer. Tissue that produces a strong reflection is known as ___________.
hyperechoic or echogenic
the CT technique using continuous scanning while the table moves the patient through the gantry is ___________.
Which of the following is not a postprocessing imaging technique for CT?
A. Volume rendering
B. Virtual reality
C. Maximum intensity projection
D. Fat suppression
To create an image in MRI, the technology depends on _________.
hydrogen atoms and their response to radiofrequency pulses
Multiple-pulse sequences may be required to illustrate pathophysiologic changes. Examples of MRI pulse sequences are ________.
T1 and T2 weighted images
PET imaging is especially useful to evaluate ________.
preradiation and postradiation or chemotherapy
Hybrid imaging equipment combines ____________.
two modalities simultaneously to produce one set of images.
Two common complications of intubation an barotrauma _________ and _______________.
A catheter commonly used to measure cardiac output and central venous pressure is the ________.
The optimal location for a central venous catheter is where the brachiocephalic veins join to form the :
Superior Vena Cava
An overexposed radiograph is often requested for visualizing transvenous endocardiac pacemakers to demonstrate both the ____________ and the ______.
The most common complication associated with the Swan-Ganz catheter is ____________ distal to the catheter tip.
_____________ is a disease of newborns characterized by progressive underaeration of the lungs and a granular appearance.
hylaline membrane disease
________ is a hereditary disease in which thick mucus is secreted by all the exocrine glands.
A necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent or puslike material is called an ________
What radiographic procedure is often requird to confirm the diagnosis of bronchiectasis when the results of a routine chest radiographs are inconclusive?
Flattening of the domes of the diaphragm, increased AP diameter of the chest and increased lucency of the retrostrenal air apace are suggestive of diagnosis of ________
The three most common pneumoconioses are __________, _____________, and __________.
silicosis, asbesotosis and antracosis
An abnormal vascular communication between a pulmonary artery and a pulmonary vein is termed __________
pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
A granulomatous disease of unknown origin that usually affects women more than men and African-Americans more than whites, and whose presence is most often identified on screening chest radiographys is ____.
For the radiographer's safety, it is important to remember that tuberculosis is spread mainly by _______-which produces infectious _________.
inhalation of irritating dusts leading to chronic inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis is called __________
the trapping of bacteria in the pulmonary circulation that occurs in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse is called:
blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest can produce________, which appears as streaks of air that outline the muscles of the thorax and sometimes the neck
air collecting behind the sternum and dissecting into the soft tissue of the neck is called _________.
an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space sometimes caused by heart failure or pulmonary embolus is called:
The special types of cells responsible for the diameter growth of bones are:
osetoblasts, and chondroblasts
what pathologic conditions is present if the posterior elements of one of or more vertebrae fail to unite?
Aging and postmenopausal hormonal changes the major causes of generalized ____________.
An inherited generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by multiple fractures and bluish color of the sclera of the eye is ________.
On a radiograph image, dense transverse bands extending across the metaphyses of the long bones are commonly seen in?
A benign projection of bone with a cartilage like cap occurring around the knee in children or adolescents is:
The form of noninfectious arthritis characterized by osteoporosis, soft tissue swelling and erosions of the metacarpophalangeal joints and ulnar styloid processes is:
The extremely common form of arthritis that is characterized by loss of joint cartilage and reactive new bone growth and that is part of the normal wear of aging is:
Inflammation of the small fluid-filled sacs that located around joints and that reduce friction is termed:
What type of fracture occurs in bone weakened by some preexisting condition, such as a metastatic lesion or muliple myeloma?
What is the name for the type of fracture that can occur from falling on the outstretched hand and that involves the distal portion of the radius?
What is the name applied to the fracture resulting from acute hyperextension of the head on the neck that usually affects C2 and C3?
Diagnosis of an intervertebral disk herniation requires which radiographic procedure?
What medical term refers to a cleft in the pars interarticularis commonly involving the fifth lumbar vertebrae?
What pathologic condition sometimes occurs after trauma, causing an interrupted blood supply to a bone?
The imaging criteria for pyelography are the same as for an abdominal radiograph but must include the area from the _____ to the _______
diaphragm, to the inferior bladder
What organ of the body plays an essential role in maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood and body fluids and also the electrolyte balance?
When diseases of the hematopoietic system result in demineralization of bone, the radiographer must be alert to the possibility of ________
What type of anemia can cause painful bone infarcts and is generally confined to African-Americans?
A hematologic disorder characterized by an increase in the production of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and platelets is:
A cancerous disease of the hematopoietic system characterized by an increase in white blood cells is:
What pathologic condition consists of a deficiency in the number of platelets resulting in spontaneous hemorrhages in the skin, internal organs and mucous membranes of the mouth.
Visualization of which of the following structures indicates that the correct contrast scale has been used for a plain abdominal radiograph?
Liver, kidneys, and psoas muscle shadows,
Lumbar spine and transverse processess
The rhythmic smooth muscle contractions found in the upper gastrointestinal system are called:
What is now considered to be the major imaging modality for the demonstration of gallstones?
Rupture of the spleen as a result of blunt abdominal trauma can be best demonstrated by what imaging procedure?
If a patient is too ill to stand, what projection can be used to demonstrate pneumoperitoneum?
left lateral decubitus, patient on left side
"apple core" and "napkin ring" are common descriptive terms for annular carcinoma of the ______.
The presence of large amounts of gas and fluid in uniformly dilated loops of small and large bowel, often seen after abdominal surgery, is termed:
Patients older than 40 years with a history of difficulty in swallowing are usually assumed, until proven otherwise, to have what pathologic condition?
If loops of bowel are distended by abnormally large amounts of air and are occupying the central portion of the abdomen, the patient most likely has a:
small bowel obstruction
The muscle becomes hypertrophic preventing the normal emptying of the stomach in cases of
the most prevalent inflammatory disease of the liver most commonly caused by a viral infection or a reaction to drugs and toxins is:
The_______ valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle, whereas the ________ valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
The contracting phase of the heart is termed the ________, whereas the relaxation phase is termed __________.
Oxygenated blood reaches the heart muscle by way of the _________.
Left coronary artery, right coronary artery
Which factors lead to coronary artery disease?
Lack of exercise, obesity, hypertension, smoking, high cholesterol diet
what radiographic procedure is used to determine the presence of coronary artery disease?
The procedure in which a balloon is used to dilate narrowed coronary arteries is named________.
percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
Which term refers to an inability of the heart to propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume?
congestive heart failure
An elevation of the pulmonary venous pressure is the most common cause of __________.
The most sensitive and specific noninvasive method of diagnosing mitral stenosis is:
The accumulation of fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart is termed:
A potentially life threatening condition that usually begins as a tear in the intima above the aortic valve is an:
The imaging modality of choice to evaluate patients with suspected neurologic dysfunction caused by head trauma is:
Movement of the brain within the calvaria following blunt trauma to the skull sometimes results in a cerebral ______.
bleeding into the ventricular system caused by injury to surface veins, cerebral parenchyma or cortical arteries can cause ___________ hemorrhage.
Plain radiographs of the facial bones should always be made with the patient in the ________ position if possible
A benign tumor that arises from arachnoid lining cells and is attached to the dura is called a:
The most common neoplasms that metastasize to the brain arise in the ______ and ________
The two imaging procedures of choice to evaluate the extent of a stroke in the brain are _________ and ________,
The imaging modality of choice to demonstrate the demylination that are characteristic of multiple sclerosis is:
A condition in which brain impulses are temporarily disturbed, the results of which range form loss of consciousness to violent seizures is termed:
A diffuse form of progressive cerebral atrophy that develops at an earlier age than the senile period is called:
A progressive degenerative disease characterized by involuntary tremors of the extremities that disappear with voluntary movement is named:
Sinus radiographs should be taken using _______ beam and the patient in the ______ position
horizontal , erect
The pathologic condition that refers to dilation of the ventricular system and is usually associated with increased intracranial pressure is _________.
If a patient needing facial or sinus radiographs is unable to stand or sit erect,an __________ using an ________ beam may be performed to demonstrate any air-fluid levels that may be present
crosstable lateral, horizontal
What hormone has the ability to constrict some blood vessels while dilating others to shunt blood to active muscles where oxygen and nutrients are needed?
What pathologic condition is characterized by obesity of the trunk of the body, a fat pad behind the shoulders and a moon shaped face?
Enlargement of the hands, feet and face is a characteristic of what pathologic condition?
A pea-sized gland suspended for the base of the brain, sometimes referred to as the master gland, is called the ________.
What is the name for an enlargement of the thyroid gland that does not result form an inflammatory or neoplastic process?
There is a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer in people who received __________.
neck irradiation in childhood
If beta cells in the islets of Langehans fail to secrete insulin, what pathologic condition results?
A diabetic patient who receives insulin before reporting to the radiology department for a upper gastrointestinal study should be monitored by the radiorapher for any signs of developing?
In addition to Ultrasound, what are the main radiographic studies currently used for the female reproductive system?
What male hormone helps to regulate metabolism by promoting growth of skeletal muscles and is considered responsible for the greater degree of muscle development in men?
What imaging modality for demonstrating the prostate gland uses a probe inserted into the rectum?
T/F Ultrasound studies of the prostate gland cannot always determine the malignant or benign status of prostatic disease.
Prostatic carcinoma can often spread through the bloodstream to the bone and can sometimes cause sclerosis of an entire vertebra. his pathologic condition is termed:
What screening technique is usually employed to identify the location of an undescended testicle?
the most common neoplasms in men between 20-35years of age are tumors that tend to metastasize through the _______ system.
What is the name of the radiographic procedure used to demonstrate the patency or status of the fallopian tubes?
Untreated _______ can lead to cerebral cortical lesions, causing mental disorders, and involvement of the skeletal system and affects infants born to infected mothers
The most common type of germ cell tumor, often containing teeth, hair, and fatty material is called:
Leiomyomas, more commonly referred to as ______, are benign smooth-muscle tumors of uterus.
A vitamin C deficiency that years ago was common among sailors because of their lack of fresh fruit and vegetables is termed:
_____ Is a vitamin deficiency disease that occurs primarily in countries in which polished rice is the main staple.
A deficiency of niacin, characterized by reddening and scaling o exposed skin, vomiting, diarrhea, and nervous and mental disorders is termed ______.
When caloric intake consistently exceeds the amount needed for the body to function ________ occurs.
a disease of young to middle aged women that is most likely an immune complex disease, that can affect several systems of the body and that is characterized by a butterfly-shaped rash across the nose and cheeks is
systemic lupus erthematosus
A very malignant form of skin cancer ,capable of metastasizing throughout the body ,is ______.
An inherited muscular disease characterized by severe weakness and eventual death from respiratory muscle failure of pneumonia is ________.
The radiographer should be very alert to the possibility of ______ in patients with muscular dystrophy who lack normal swallowing ability.
Arachnodactyly, or spider-like digits, occurs in which two hereditary disorders?
Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria
A term that refers to the genes inherited from each parent are the same fr a particular trait
A term that refers to genes inherited from each parent that differ for a particular trait
An alteration in the DNA structure that may become permanent hereditary changes if they affect the gonadal cells.
This disorder results when both parents carry it's gene. The trait does not usually affect the parents.
Radioactive glucose molecules used as a contrast agent may be used with this type of modality
scan provides physiological information rather than specific anatomic information in this modality