art appreciation exam 2

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Terms in this set (...)

Elements
the basic vocabulary of art -- line, form, shape, volume, mass, color, texture, space, time and motion, and value
Principles
the ways the elements of art are constructed in a work of art -- contrast, balance, unity, rhythm, emphasis, pattern, scale, proportion, and focal point
Two-dimensional
having height and width, but no depth
Formal analysis
examining the arrangement of visual elements in an artwork
Line
mark or implied mark between two points
Perspective
the creation of the illusion of depth in the two-dimensional image by using mathematical principles
Implied line
lines are not actually drawn but suggested by elements in the work
Shape
a two-dimensional area the boundaries of which are defined by lines or suggested by changes in color or value
Geometric shapes
made of regular lines and curves
Organic shapes
made of unpredictable, irregular lines
Implied shapes
no continuous boundary ex. AT&T logo
Contrast
a drastic difference between such elements as color or value when they are presented together
Positive shape
a shape defined by its surrounding empty space
Negative shape
an empty space given shape by its surroundings
Three-dimensional (3-D)
having height, width, and depth
Form
an object that can be defined in 3-D (height, width, and depth)
Geometric forms
3-D forms composed of regular planes and curves
Organic form
3D form made up of unpredictable, irregular planes suggest the natural world
Relief
a raised form on a largely flat background
In the round
a freestanding sculpted work that can be viewed from all sides
Volume
the pace filled or enclosed by 3-D figure or object
Mass
a volume that has or gives the illusion of having weight, density, and bulk
Texture
the surface quality of a work
Actual texture
can be touched and felt
Implied texture
in 2-D works
Value
the lightness or darkness of a plane or area
Chiaroscuro
the use of light and dark in a painting to create the impression of value
Hatching
the use of non-overlapping parallel lines to convey darkness or lightness
Cross-hatching
the use of overlapping parallel lines to convey darkness or lightness
Medium (media)
specific
Space
the distance between identifiable points or planes
Atmospheric perspective
use of shades of color and clarity to create illusion of depth
Isometric perspective
a system using diagonal parallel lines to communicate depth
One-point perspective
a single vanishing point on a horizon
Vanishing point
the point in the work of art at which imaginary sight lines appear to converge, suggesting depth
Two-point perspective
has two vanishing points on a horizon
Three-point perspective
two vanishing points on horizon and one not on horizon
multiple -point perspective
four points of view not at ground level
Foreshortening
a perspective technique that depicts a form at a dramatic
Color
the optical effect caused when reflected white light of the spectrum is divided into separate wavelengths
Pigment
the colored material used in paints
Primary colors
three basic colors from which all other colors are derived - Red, Yellow, Blue
Secondary colors
colors mixed from two primary colors - orange, green, violet
Tertiary colors
colors that can be mixed from a secondary and primary color - i.e. yellow-green
Complementary colors
colors opposite one another on the color wheel
Analogous color
colors adjacent to each other on the color wheel
Hue
general classification of a color; red, green, etc.
Value
the lightness or darkness of a plane or area
Neutral
color made by mixing complementary hues i.e. gray
Tint
a color lighter in value than its purest state
Shade
a color darker in color than its purest state
Tone
a color that is weaker than its brightest, most pure state
Monochromatic
having one or more values of one color
Motion
the effect of changing placement in time
Implied motion
uses visual cues to show motion
Op art
a style of art that exploits the physiology of seeing to create illusory optical efforts
Performance art
a work involving the human body in front of an audience
Unity
the imposition of order and harmony on a design
Composition
the overall design or organization of a work
Found image/object
image or object found by an artist and presented with little or no alterations
Variety
the diversity of different ideas, media, and elements in a work
Balance
a principle of art in which elements are used to create visual weight
Symmetrical balance
if cut in half, each side looks exactly the same
Asymmetrical balance
elements on the left and right side are not the same
Radial balance
all objects repeat side to side, top to bottom and radiate from central point
Scale
the size of an object or artwork relative to the size of another object or artwork
Proportion
the relationship in size between a works individual parts and the whole
Emphasis
the principle of drawing attention to particular content in a work
Focal point
the center of interest or activity in a work of art, often drawing the viewer's attention to the most important element
Subordinate
the opposite of the emphasis; it draws our attention away from particular areas of a work
Pattern
an arrangement of predictably repeated elements
Motif
a design repeated as a unit in a pattern
Rhythm
the regular or ordered repetition of elements in the work
Style
a characteristic way in which an artist/artists use visual language to give a work an identifiable form or visual expression
Content
the meaning, message, or feeling expressed in a work of art