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Northwest Ordinance

1787, divided territories in the Midwest into townships and allowed them to eventually become states; supported public schools; prohibited slavery in the region; written by Dane

Fugitive Slave Laws

1793, updated in Compromise of 1850, providing different fees to judges depending on their verdict

Naturalization Act

1798, increased citizen residency requirement from 5 to 14 years; repealed in1802

Alien Act

1798, allowed President to deport any alien considered dangerous; expired in 1800

Alien Enemies Act

1798, allowed for the deportation of citizens of nations at war with the US; expired in 1801

Sedition Act

1798, prohibited printing of libel or fostering opposition to US laws

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

1798, drafted by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to infringements of civil liberties in the Alien and Sedition Acts; later cited by nullification proponents

Missouri Compromise

1820, Clay's (KY) proposal allowed slave state MO and free state ME to enter (keeping balance at 12 each);

Tallmadge Amendment to Missouri Compromise

1820, would have freed slaves born in MO at age 25; didn't pass

Specie Circular

1836, required land payments be made in gold or silver; devalued currency; supported by Jackson; written by Benton, delivered by Treasury Secretary Woodbury

Wilmot Proviso

1846, proviso added by Wilmot (PN) to appropriations bill preventing slavery in lands acquired from Mexico; removed from the bill by the Senate

Compromise of 1850

1850, Clay's (KY) proposal included ending of slavery in DC, admission of CA, a new Fugitive Slave Law, establishment of NM and UT territories, and $10 million payment to TX

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854, Douglas's (IL) proposal created KS and NE, and allowed settlers in both states to decide slavery issue for themselves, repealing Missouri Compromise

Homestead Act

1862, provided free land up to 160 acres to people who would settle on it for five years

Morrill Land-Grant College Act

1862, provided much federal land to states for establishing state universities

Enrollment Act

1863, instituted a draft for the Civil War, allowing exception by the payment of $300

Wade-Davis Bill

1864, Wade (OH) and Davis (MD) proposed bill requiring half a state's white males to swear loyalty before reestablishing state governments in the South; pocket-vetoed by Lincoln, who supported his Ten Percent Plan

Freedmen's Bureau

1865, also Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; established Freedmen's Bureau to help freed slaves; headed by Howard

Tenure of Office Act

1867, prevented the President from removing officials without Senate's consent; violated by Andrew Johnson when he replaced Secretary of War Stanton with Thomas, leading to his impeachment trial

Bland-Allison Act

1878, created silver certificate and allowed silver purchase by the government

Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act

1883, required competitive tests for federal civil service jobs; passed in response to Garfield's assassination by Guiteau; drafted by Pendleton and Eaton

Sherman Antitrust Act

1890, proposal by Sherman (OH) outlawed all trusts in restraint of free trade

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

1890, proposal by Sherman (OH) provided by monthly purchase of silver by federal government

Teller Amendment to Declaration of War with Spain

1898, stated that the US would not annex Cuba

Platt Amendment to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901

1901, ended US occupation of Cuba; established naval base at Guantanamo Bay Spooner Amendment to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901 - 1901, provided for civilian government in the Philippines

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906, supported by Wiley; inspired by Sinclair's Jungle; amended 1938

Clayton Antitrust Act

1914, amendment to Sherman Antitrust Act by Clayton (AL); dealt with new monopolistic practices

Espionage Act

1917, provides stiff penalties for spying against the US

Glass-Steagall Act

1932, extended credit and gold to industries

Norris-LaGuardia Act

1932, banned yellow-dog contracts and prevented injunctions

National Industrial Recovery Act

1933, established Public Works Administration (under Ickes) and National Recovery Administration to help economic recovery from Great Depression; NRA was ruled unconstitutional in Schechter Poultry v. US

Wagner Act

1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining

Hatch Act

1939, also Political Activity Act; limited political activities of federal employees; limited individual campaign contributions

Smith Act

1940, also Alien Registration Act; outlawed advocacy of force to change government

Lend-Lease Act

1941, allowed the President to grant economic aid to nations important to the defense of the US

Taft-Hartley Act

1947, also Labor-Management Relations Acts; curbed powers of unions; outlawed closed shop; allowed right-to-work laws; passed over Truman's veto

McCarran-Walter Act

1952, removed ban on immigration by Asians to US

Landrum-Griffin Act

1959, also Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act; Bill of Rights for union members; regulated union internal affairs; required reporting of union dealings

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965, provided federal enforcement of laws allowing minorities to vote

Medicare Act

1965, established health insurance for the elderly

Medicaid Act

1965, established health insurance for the poor

Social Security Act of 1967

1967, established social welfare insurance

Civil Rights Act of 1968

1968, prohibited racial or religious discrimination in housing

Boland Amendment

1984, prevented US aid for contras in Nicaragua

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