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1787, divided territories in the Midwest into townships and allowed them to eventually become states; supported public schools; prohibited slavery in the region; written by Dane
Fugitive Slave Laws
1793, updated in Compromise of 1850, providing different fees to judges depending on their verdict
1798, increased citizen residency requirement from 5 to 14 years; repealed in1802
Alien Enemies Act
1798, allowed for the deportation of citizens of nations at war with the US; expired in 1801
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
1798, drafted by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to infringements of civil liberties in the Alien and Sedition Acts; later cited by nullification proponents
1820, Clay's (KY) proposal allowed slave state MO and free state ME to enter (keeping balance at 12 each);
Tallmadge Amendment to Missouri Compromise
1820, would have freed slaves born in MO at age 25; didn't pass
1836, required land payments be made in gold or silver; devalued currency; supported by Jackson; written by Benton, delivered by Treasury Secretary Woodbury
1846, proviso added by Wilmot (PN) to appropriations bill preventing slavery in lands acquired from Mexico; removed from the bill by the Senate
Compromise of 1850
1850, Clay's (KY) proposal included ending of slavery in DC, admission of CA, a new Fugitive Slave Law, establishment of NM and UT territories, and $10 million payment to TX
1854, Douglas's (IL) proposal created KS and NE, and allowed settlers in both states to decide slavery issue for themselves, repealing Missouri Compromise
1862, provided free land up to 160 acres to people who would settle on it for five years
Morrill Land-Grant College Act
1862, provided much federal land to states for establishing state universities
1863, instituted a draft for the Civil War, allowing exception by the payment of $300
1864, Wade (OH) and Davis (MD) proposed bill requiring half a state's white males to swear loyalty before reestablishing state governments in the South; pocket-vetoed by Lincoln, who supported his Ten Percent Plan
1865, also Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; established Freedmen's Bureau to help freed slaves; headed by Howard
Tenure of Office Act
1867, prevented the President from removing officials without Senate's consent; violated by Andrew Johnson when he replaced Secretary of War Stanton with Thomas, leading to his impeachment trial
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883, required competitive tests for federal civil service jobs; passed in response to Garfield's assassination by Guiteau; drafted by Pendleton and Eaton
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1890, proposal by Sherman (OH) provided by monthly purchase of silver by federal government
Platt Amendment to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901
1901, ended US occupation of Cuba; established naval base at Guantanamo Bay Spooner Amendment to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901 - 1901, provided for civilian government in the Philippines
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914, amendment to Sherman Antitrust Act by Clayton (AL); dealt with new monopolistic practices
National Industrial Recovery Act
1933, established Public Works Administration (under Ickes) and National Recovery Administration to help economic recovery from Great Depression; NRA was ruled unconstitutional in Schechter Poultry v. US
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
1939, also Political Activity Act; limited political activities of federal employees; limited individual campaign contributions
1941, allowed the President to grant economic aid to nations important to the defense of the US
1947, also Labor-Management Relations Acts; curbed powers of unions; outlawed closed shop; allowed right-to-work laws; passed over Truman's veto
1959, also Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act; Bill of Rights for union members; regulated union internal affairs; required reporting of union dealings
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