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COM 2400 Exam 1
Terms in this set (95)
In every type of communication, there needs to be a____ and a____ .
According to the Shannon-Weaver Model of communication, a message from a sender is encoded into a medium, and the encoded message is sent out through a channel to the receiver.
When you talk to someone face-to-face, the channel of your messages is_____
Messages were given a more permanent form when written codes were deveoloped about 5000 years ago.
After writing was invented, messages could be written down and let messengers carry the written message to the other party. This was a more reliable form than the oral delivery of messages becasue oral messages could be misinterpreted or distorted by the messenger, wheareas written messages could be delivered
exactly as formulated by the sender.
What's the name of the machine that is used to mass produce written content?
What is the meaning of telecommunication?
communication at a distance
What are some early forms of telecommunication?
1) Writtern messages from one person to another.
2) Transportation systems (horses, horse carriages, train, etc.
3) Smoke signals
6) Optical Telegraph - Semaphore flag system
In the early years of telecommunication, the speed of communication depended on the speed of transportation.
What is the Optical Telegraph/Semaphore Flag system?
An alphabet signaling system based on the waving of a pair of hand-held flags in a particular pattern.
With _____, messages are coded into medium (smoke) and broadcast to the surroundings. Any recipient with knowledge of the code recieves the message.
Smoke signals requires ideal conditions. Smoke signaling is not possible at night and messages must be brief.
What was the first electricity-based telecommunication device?
What became possible as the result of electricity?
This how the telegraph works: String a wire between two places and send an electric current through using a code and the electric current is broken up into short pieces and long pieces -dots and dashes.
What is the speed at which telegraph messages travel?
The speed of light (186,000 miles per second)
What consists of dots and dashes that represents letters of the alphabet?
Who created the Morse Telegraph?
What infrastructure element is NOT needed to make instant telegraphic communication possible?
1) A wired connection between two points
2) Personnel who knows Morse code
3) A telegraph office
4) A WMU Open Wi-fi connection
A WMU Open Wi-fi connection
Having information sooner rather than later provides the receiver with a tactical advantage, like in business and in war, for example.
The word telegraph literally means ___.
The term "telegraph' was in use even before the development of the electronic telegraph. For example, the semaphore signaling system developed in France towards the end of the 18th century was called optical telegraph. This system used a line of towers connecting two cities. Messages were relayed from one tower to the next by operators on these towers who spelled out the messages with two flags.
The optical telegraph and electronic telegraph had one thing in common : both ______
were writing from a distance
The telegraph system developed by Samuel Morse in the United States was simpler than the optical telegraph and electronic telegraph.
Samuel Morse's telegraph broke up a steady flow of electric current in different sequences to represent the various letters of the alphabet. The system known assigns a different combination of short signals or long signals - or dots and dashes to each letter of the alphabet. This system is called ______
Samuel Morse's system did not impress too many people at first. Europeans were happy with the optical telegraph or the Wheatstone-Cooke needle telegraph. In the U.S. Morse found very few people willing to support him financially. In the end, it was the United States congress that granted him funds to develop the first telegraph line between _______ and ______.
Washington and Baltimore
In his first demonstration of his telegraph system, Morse transmitted the famous phrase ______
'What Hath God Wroght'
From the very beginning, people were extremely excited about Samuel Morse's telegraph?
It is the network infrasturcture that connects communication devices to other similar devices so that communication can happen. Thus, a network infrastructure is needed wIth any communication device, including your cellphone.
What are the infrastructural elements needed to make telegrahic communication possible?
1) A wired connection between two points
2) Personel who knows Morse code
3) A telegraphic office
By mid 19th century, ______ had virtual monopoly over the telegraph business in the United States.
When did Western Union finally close its telegraph division?
European countries controlled vast territories in Asia and Africa - a vast source of manpower and raw materials. Great Britain, the superpower among colonial powers 'over whose empire the sun never set', saw value in a transcontinental telegraph to oversee and control their empire.
In regard to the submarine telegraph, _____, the sap of a tree found in South east Asia was the first material used to insulate the telegraph wires so that these wires could be laid under sea
In 1866, ____ laid the cable connecting North America to Europe. This telegraph line is known as the ______.
Cyrus Field; Atlantic Cable
A news agency/wire service IS NOT the same thing as a newspaper. A news agency is an organization that collects news items and distributes them to newspapers or broadcasters. The first news agency is said to be Havas in France. Today, the largest news agency is Reuters in Great Britian. However, the largest news agency in the U.S. is the Associated Press (The AP).
As a result of the telegraph, the process of news gathering and distribution became more timely via news agencies/wire services.
What happens when we speak?
Our vocal chords produce air virbrations, and the brain recognizes these vibrations as sound.
When we speak into a telephone, air vibrations (sound energy) created by our vocal chords hits the mouthpiece of the telephone and are converted into a proportionate analog electric charge, and is transmitted through wires to the ear piece of the receiver's telephone, which converts the electric charge back into air vibrations.
Elisha Grey patented the telephone. He was an instructor of the deaf and fell in love with one of his students, Mabel Hubbard.
Bell Telephone company established a subsidiary, AT&T, to build long distance connections between local networks. In 1900, AT&T became the parent company of the Bell system.
Bell, Hubbard and Watson made two major business decisions. First they decided to create a centralized network. Second, they decided to lease telephone sets to customers in which subscribers paid a monthly fee for the connection and leased the set.
The telephone is considered a common carrier. a common carrier is a network that carries the messages of anyone willing to pay the fee. As opposed to private networks that primary carry messages from the owners.
One of the cons of a centralized network is if the telephone exchange building is burned down, for example, the whole network is destroyed.
Alexander Graham Bell offered to sell Willian Orton, president and CEO of Western Union, his new telephone invention for $100,000. Orton rejected Bell's offer in what is now known as one of the biggest blunders of all time.
Who invented the telephone and was orginally an instructor for deaf students?
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell fell in love with one of his deaf students, and her name was____
Who was Gardiner Greene Hubbard?
1) A well known lawyer in Boston who provided funding for Bell's experiments with harmonic telegraph.
2) The father of Mable Hubbard, one of Bell's deaf students.
3) Bell's father in law.
Who was Thomas Watson?
Alexander Graham Bell's assistant and the receiver of the first telephone call
Who was NOT a part of the early telephone history?
Alexander Graham Bell
Gardiner Greene Hubbard
Bell Telephone Comapany established the susidiary AT&T to build long distance conection between local networks, and AT&T became the parent company in 1900.
What labatory was established as AT&T's research and development company and produced technological advances such as the first laser, the first transistor, and the first efficient communicaation satellite?
Bell Telephone Labortories (Bell Labs)
What was the name of AT&T's company used to manufacture all telephone related hardware?
AT&T established 22 Bell Operating Companies (BOC) which were responsible for local telephone service in their region, state, etc (ex: Michigan Bell).
Why did the Department of Justice sue AT&T in 1974?
ATT&T monopolized the telephone business
As a result of the Department of Justice lawsuit against AT&T,____
1) The courts broke up the AT&T empire, and ordered the company to divest its 22 Bell Operating Companies.
2) AT&T was reduced to being one of the long distance service providers.
3) Bell labs and Western Electric became independent companies, and Western Electric lost its monopoly over telephone equipment manufacturing
What did the government hope to accomplish in its lawsuit against AT&T?
To ensure there was more competition in the telephone business
To encourage innovation in the telephone business
According to the video "Man, moment, machine. Alexander Graham Bell & the astonishing telephone," what does Alexander Graham Bell say to Thomas Watson in the first ever telephone conversation?
"Watson, come here. I want to see you."
According to the video "Man, moment, machine. Alexander Graham Bell & the astonishing telephone," Bell was inspired at a young age to work with deaf people because____
His mother was partially deaf
By 1932, 81 percent of the telephone business in the country was controlled by____
According to the film, Emma Nutt was the first female telephone operator.
According to the film we watched in class, Alexander Graham Bell marketed the telephone to women and teenagers.
As a reult of the Department of Justice's lawsuit against AT&T, seven Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOC) or Baby Bells took over the LONG DISTANCE telephone network in seven regions of the country.
Today, landline telephone services is not that profitable of a business today because more people are using cellphones.
Within the past two years, landline telephone workers for AT&T and Verzion went on strike because they feared their jobs to oursourcing and contracting.
As a result of the Department of Justice's lawsuit against AT&T, AT&T had to give up its LONG DISTANCE networks.
The purpose of the Telecommunication Act of 1996 was to promote fierce competition and the act succeeded in that regard.
As a result of the Department of Justice's lawsuit against AT&T, AT&T was allowed to keep Western Electic, its manufactoring company for all telephone related hardware.
As a result of the Department of Justice's lawsuit against AT&T, AT&T was allowed to keep Bell Labs, AT&T research and development company.
As a result of the Department of Justice's lawsuit against AT&T, Sprint and T-Mobile were allowed to provide long distance telephone services.
The biggest drawback of both early telegraph and telephone is that the signals traveled through wires, making telecommunication between two points with these technologies possible only If there is a wire connection between the two points.
______ is the first to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic radiation by building an apparatus to produce radio waves.
The phrase Electromagnetic waves is synonymous with radio waves.
Who developed the first practical wireless telegraph system?
______ established the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company.
In 1901, Marconi arrived in the United States and established a subsidiary of his company. He named this company ______.
American Marconi Company
Marconi built a global corporate empire and held a monopoly over the wireless business with is his non-interconnection policy.
Communication between points without a wired connection was an advantage of wireless telegraph. This meant that ships at sea could communicate with other ships or with wireless stations on the shore.
_____ added a third element to the Fleming valve and patented it as the Audion Tube. The Audion tube made the wireless receivers more sensitive and improved radio signal reception. ______ is considered the father of radio.
Lee De Forest
Who invented the Regenerative Circuit?
Telegraph, telephone and wireless telegraph were all point-to-point telecommunication systems.
What does point-to-point communication mean?
One source sends a message to one reciever.
Because of wireless telepgraph's popularity, encrypted wireless became an essential tool in the management of wars. Breaking the code for the enemy became top priority. Thus, the origins of computer technology can be traced to code breaking.
Disadvantages of a wireless system was the weakening of signals as they travel through the air, the use of huge antennas to detect signals, the lack of privacy and the continued use of Morse Code to send messages.
Reginald Fessenden, a Canadian inventor worked with Ernst Alexanderson to develop an 'alternator' - a machine that produces a continuous wave of constant frequency and amplitude. Next, Fessenden's attempted to superimpose a signal generated by human voice (that is, human voice converted into electric energy as in telephone) onto a continuous wave. He succeeded in 1906.
To transmit human voice and radio, The human voice is stamped onto a carrier wave.
Broadcasting is point-to-point communication. That means one person can send a message to only one receiver.
During World War III, the Army took over all radio operations and assumed responsibility for patent infringement. During the World War III, the Army engineers put together a working radio communication system.
Today, you don't hear about individual inventors like Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, etc. because corporations hire sceintist to be their inventors. Thus, corporations replaced individuals inventors as owners of patents.
After Wold War I, the U.S. Government turns over radio technology back to U.S. companies.
In the cross-lisensing agreement, General Electric and Westinghouse were in charge of marketing and selling receiver sets.
What was some of the speccific purpose of broadcasting?
1) To increase the sale of radio receivers
2) To increase the sale of newspapers
3) To increase the membership of churches
4) To deliver course content to students in their homes.
The general purpose of early broadcasting was to promote an already exisitng business.
____ was the first company to established to conduct broadcasting.
NBC named WEAF the ______ and formed another network joining together the WJZ network and RCA network and named it the ______.
Red Channel; Blue Channel
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