a city that is independent (has own laws and government) and controls the land surrounding it
Mesopotamian writing using wedge-shaped instrument
to change an animal or plant to make it useful to humans
a government where one culture controls others that they have conquered
curved area of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers/ runs in a horseshoe shape from Israel to the Persian Gulf
people who follow game animals and gather plants instead of ranching or farming
system to supply water to crops
means "land between two rivers" , ancient civilization located in the fertile crescent
belief in one god
belief in many gods
people who have no permanent home
very fine mix of clay, dirt, sand and fertilizers carried by rivers
main temples of the Mesopotamian people - Pyramid shaped structure with a flat top / temple on top and government offices below
to trade without using money
a collection of 282 laws inscribed on an upright stone pillar
Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792 to 1750 B.C. Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern Mesopotamia
Ancient kingdom in Mesopotamia, lasting from approximately the 18th century until the 6th century BCE
Famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC
First city- state in Mesopotamia. Considered the first civilization.
Ur was a city in the region of Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, in what is modern-day Iraq. Also the birthplace of Abraham, patriarch of the Israelites
The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon
Became an independent state in the 14th century bce, becoming a major power in Mesopotamia. Once the bullied, became bullies famous for their cruelty and fighting abilities. First to use iron weapons, catapults, and battering rams.
A Chaldean king of the Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC - 562 BC. He is responsible for both the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem's 1st temple.
The oldest and most-populous city of the ancient Assyrian empire, situated on the east bank of the Tigris River and the center of education in the region.
The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia
The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia
using resources to meet people's needs: production, trading
complex societies- often connected to cities
study of making and using metal
person trained to write
very long poem telling of a journey by a hero
Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia. Dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (circa 2100 BC), it is often regarded as the first great work of literature.
A pointed instrument used for writing
A temple/ tower of the ancient Sumarians in the form of a terraced pyramid