35 terms

Mesopotamia

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city state
a city that is independent (has own laws and government) and controls the land surrounding it
cuneiform
Mesopotamian writing using wedge-shaped instrument
domesticate
to change an animal or plant to make it useful to humans
empire
a government where one culture controls others that they have conquered
Fertile Crescent
curved area of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers/ runs in a horseshoe shape from Israel to the Persian Gulf
hunter-gatherer
people who follow game animals and gather plants instead of ranching or farming
irrigation
system to supply water to crops
Mesopotamia
means "land between two rivers" , ancient civilization located in the fertile crescent
monotheistic
belief in one god
polytheistic
belief in many gods
nomadic
people who have no permanent home
silt
very fine mix of clay, dirt, sand and fertilizers carried by rivers
ziggurat
main temples of the Mesopotamian people - Pyramid shaped structure with a flat top / temple on top and government offices below
barter
to trade without using money
Hammurabi's code
a collection of 282 laws inscribed on an upright stone pillar
Hammurabi
Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792 to 1750 B.C. Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern Mesopotamia
Babylonia
Ancient kingdom in Mesopotamia, lasting from approximately the 18th century until the 6th century BCE
Sargon
Famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC
Sumar
First city- state in Mesopotamia. Considered the first civilization.
Ur
Ur was a city in the region of Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, in what is modern-day Iraq. Also the birthplace of Abraham, patriarch of the Israelites
Akkadian Empire
The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon
Assyrian Empire
Became an independent state in the 14th century bce, becoming a major power in Mesopotamia. Once the bullied, became bullies famous for their cruelty and fighting abilities. First to use iron weapons, catapults, and battering rams.
Nebecenezzer II
A Chaldean king of the Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC - 562 BC. He is responsible for both the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem's 1st temple.
Nineveh
The oldest and most-populous city of the ancient Assyrian empire, situated on the east bank of the Tigris River and the center of education in the region.
Tigris River
The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia
Euphrates River
The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia
economy
using resources to meet people's needs: production, trading
record keeping
recording information
civilization
complex societies- often connected to cities
metallurgy
study of making and using metal
scribe
person trained to write
epic
very long poem telling of a journey by a hero
Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia. Dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (circa 2100 BC), it is often regarded as the first great work of literature.
Stylus
A pointed instrument used for writing
Ziggarat
A temple/ tower of the ancient Sumarians in the form of a terraced pyramid

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