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english study guide
Terms in this set (37)
what are two of the four outcomes that ENGL 2020 has developed?
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means word or reason, use of evidence, testimonial experts, common sense
means appeal to emotion, can be said for feeling and suffering. Do not use emotion to confuse, do not falsify issue or distract from facts of the case. Used to get audience to actually do something.
greek word for character. It is to help the reader trust the writer. DO NOT use vulgar language, showing an awareness of complexity of the issue and showing attention to detail. It is used in writing to fairly show oppositions argument and to gain credibility with reader
a joining of two premises to produce a conclusion, a third statement
example of syllogism
all humans are mortal+socrates is a human being=socrates is mortal
-premises must be true
-syllogism must be valid
how do you tell if a syllogism is true?
basic test for truth of premise to determine whether it corresponds with reality. argument has to be a sound argument. It passes test of content, passes the test of form
what about false syllogism
fallacies are examples of invalid syllogisms
lead down from. Everything you need to know is in the premises. Nothing is inferred. It does not give any new knowledge. it takes our beliefs and assumptions and extracts their hidden consequences.
lead up to. Uses info about observed cases to reach a conclusion about unobserved cases. It gives conclusions that go beyond the info contained in the premise. Their conclusions are not always true
inductive argument from example
To show a candidate is a untrustworthy candidate, you talk about his past track-record and point to episodes in his career where he misuses funds. . .an example is a sample taken from a group
inductive argument from statistics
the higher the gpa, the better the scholar (says the statistics) so a student with a 3.6 gpa will not get as many honors as a student that has a 4.0 gpa. it is based on the assumption that the nearer a students GPA is to a perfect record, the better scholar they are
inductive argument from authoritative testimoney
doctors opinion on health is an example. it is a form of evidence. We rely on authoritative testimony a lot. use an authority that is not biased.
inductive argument from analogy
analogy is an extended comparison in which different things are shown to be similar in several ways. example-babies are not like bad teeth, to be jerked out because they cause suffering.
faulty argument from analogy
when two items are similar in a few ways, then he arguer goes on to say that they are also similar in another way, but isnt, or the analogy is not true at all EXAMPLE- employees are like nails, just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so must employees
faulty argument from example
many smokers have lung cancer. Lung cancer causes people to smoke. False analogy
faulty argument from statistics
having an invalid assumption. Our eighth grad class is all european, therefore every eighth grade class is eurpoean
faulty argument from authoritative testimony
using someone who is unqualified to speak on a topic. For example- a bioethics professor cannot speak on good dental hygeine unless they are well knowledged on it.
how do you use the nonrational appeal responsibly?
satire-witty ridicule- can be used effectively if it persuades hearer to accept speakers point of view. If too heavy laden, then it becomes sarcasm. if it is witty, then it is irony
-sarcasm is not fair!
using pathos in writing. it is not fair to confuse reader with emotion or shift attention away from facts.
NO FALLACY IS INVOLVED if the emotional appeal heightens the facts, bringing home the facts.
-do not falsify
-don't distract from attention
distorting the facts
appeal to ignorance
distorting the facts
not representing all the facts, and leading audience to false conclusions
EXAMPLE- the pharmaceutical company does not tell all the negative side effects proven from a new drug it is marketing
exaggerating the opponents argument to make it extreme and easier to refute
EXAMPLE- Anyone who defends death penalty must defend all the horrible things done in its name. No rational person would hold a view.
exaggerating in a way that oversimplifies the truth
EXAMPLE- poverty causes crime
appeal to ignorance
arguing for a premise that asserts "we don't know" something
EXAMPLE-we do not know how many innocent people have been convicted for murder and wrongly executed, so death penalty is too risky and ought to be abolished.
what is biased language?
insults a person or group. words or phrases considered prejudiced. Favoring one side over another. Example- although she was a blond, Mary was still intelligent.
what is a Implicit metaphor?
suggests a comparison rather than stating it directly. The terms being compared are not specifically explained.
EXAMPLE- stubborn man unwilling to leave would be a "mule standing his ground"
What is plagiarism
unacknowledged use of someone's work. Paraphrase and summary are plagiarism if not acknowledged. Common knowledge does not need to be cited.
two ways of gathering ideas
FREEWRITING- writing for 5 or 6 minutes nonstop without sensoring to get ideas down on paper.
LISTING- jotting down items just as you do when making shopping list.
two different uses for outline
-outline as a preliminary guide- sketch outline as soon as they think they know what to say. Used to get going.
-outline as a way of checking draft- used to see whether essay is well organized. Formal outline!
How to give feedback on draft workshop paper-
give constructive criticism, do not direct comments at person, but rather at paper. Read through draft quickly, then read it again
gives the main idea of paragraph, states topic of paragraph, it tells what paragraph will be about
book: Last name, first name. Title of Book. City of publication:Publisher, year of publication. Medium of Publication.
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