DAT set 3
Terms in this set (94)
The elimination of waste in the body
Pertaining to muscles
The flow of blood from the heart, through the lungs, and back to the heart.
A fat call
The 1st substrate in the Krebs cycle, produced primarily from the oxidation of pyruvate by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This is also produced during fatty acid oxidation and protein catabolism.
Specific defense of the body by antibodies secreted into the blood by B-cells.
Displacement or malposition of an organ or body part
The movement of the membrane potential of a cell away from rest potential, in a more positive direction.
One of several different nutrients that must be consumed in the diet, and are generally generally not synthesized in the body. Can be either fat or water soluble.
The synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle cell. The muscle cell membrane is invaginated and the axon terminus is elongated so that a greater area of membrane can be depolarized at one time.
The nerve extending from the back of the eyeball of the brain that carries visual information. The optic nerve is made up of the axons of the ganglion cells of the retina.
The stage of human development during which the organs are formed. This begins after gastrulation and is completed by the eighth week of gestation.
A long projection on a bacterial surface involved in an attachment.
Fluid Mosaic Model
The current understanding of membrane structure, in which the membrane is composed of a mix of lipids and proteins that are free to move fluidly among themselves.
The division of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst (developing embryo) into three primary germ layers. This occurs during weeks 2-4 of gestation. Ectoderm (outer) Mesoderm (middle) and Endoderm (inner)
The tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
A hole in the center of the iris that allows light to enter the eyeball. Its diameter depends on the contraction of the iris which fluctuates due to light intensity
The second most common of the five classes of leukocytes. They are involved in the specific immunity responses and include both T cells and B cells.
The final phase of mitosis where the nuclear envelope forms, chromosomes decondense, and the mitotic spindle is dissembled.
Common Bile Duct
The duct that carries bile from the gallbladder and liver to the small intestine (duodenum)
The primary female sex organ that produces gametes (ova) and secretes estrogen and progesterone
The plasma membrane of a muscle cell.
A fibrous, connective-tissue protein that has the ability to recoil to its original shape after being stretched. Found in lung tissue, arterial tissue, skin and the epiglottis.
A type of lymphocyte that can recognize an antigen and secrete an antibody specific for that antigen. When activated by binding to an antigen, these cells mature into plasma cells and memory cells for future encounters with that antigen.
A pigment produced by melanocytes in the bottom cell layer of the epidermis. Its production is increased on sun exposure and helps prevent cellular damage due to UV radiation.
Inflammation of the liver
The innermost layer of the eyeball. The retina is made up of a layer of photorecptors, a layer of bipolar cells, and a layer of ganglion cells.
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Can be either unicellular or multicellular
A specific DNA nucleotide sequence where transcriptional regulatory proteins can bind
A waste product of protein breakdown. This is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream, which will be eliminated by the kidney
The mitochondria and chloroplasts were originated as independent unicellular organisms living in symbiotic relationships with larger cells.
The first branches of the trachea. There are two primary bronchi, one for each lung
A haploid but immature cell resulting from the second meiotic division of spermatogenesis. These will undergo go physical changes to finally mature.
A non-protein, but organic, molecule that is covalently bound to an enzyme as part of the active site (maybe a vitamin)
Pertaining to blue
The integration of input from many presynaptic neurons by a single postsynaptic neuron, either temporarily or spatially. Also, the integration of single muscle twitches into a sustained contraction.
Pertaining to the skull
The part of mitosis where the two daughter cells split a part.
Slow Blocks to Polyspermy
aka the cortical reaction, the slow block involves an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] in the egg, which causes the release of cortical granules near the egg plasma membrane. This results in the hardening of the zona pellucida and its separation from the surface of the egg.
The maintenance of relatively constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions.
A point mutation in which a codon that specifies an amino acid is mutated to a stop codon.
A normal component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Cause extreme immune reactions (septic shock), particularly when many of them enter the circulation at once.
Microscopic outward folds of the cells lining the small intestine. They serve to increase the surface area of the small intestine for absorption.
Pertaining to the armpit
A polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi and in the exoskeleton of insects
A type of substrate binding to a multi-active site enzyme, in which the binding of one substrate molecule facilitates the binding of subsequent substrate molecule. A graph of reaction rate vs substrate concentration appears sigmoidal. (exp. hemoglobin binds to oxygen in this fashion)
A situation in which a heterozygote displays the phenotype associated with each of the alleles.
The process of building complex structures out of simpler precursors (exp. synthesizing proteins from amino acids)
The sum of all genetic material in a population
An enzyme that phosphorylates something else. Frequently used in regulatory pathways.
Fingerlike projection of the uterine tubes that drape over the ovary
Contains three subphases: the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase (FOLd)
A receptor that responds to light
The newly formed daughter stand of DNA that is replicated in a discontinuous fashion, where Okazaki fragments will be ligated together. Replicated in the opposite direction of that of parallel DNA is unwinding.
The color white
The most common electron carrier in cellular respiration. Its reduced form is a produced by the conversion of malate in glycolysis.
A substance that evokes the production of antibodies.
One of the four basic types of animal tissue. Lines the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body.
The portion of the nephron after the glomerulus and capsule. It is the region of the nephron where the filtrate is modified along its path to becoming urine.
A precursor cell that undergoes mitosis during fetal development to produce more of itself. These cells are then activated by primary oocytes, which will remain dormant until stimulated to undergo meiosis and participate in the menstrual cycle.
A hormone produced from vitamin D that acts in essentially the same manner as parathyroid hormone.
A long, coiled duct, on the outside of the testes, in which the sperm mature. (SEVEn UP)
A collection of macrophages that occurs mostly when the immune system cannot destroy a foreign invader; they do not destroy the invader but isolate it by building a wall to prevent spreading.
A four-carbon molecule that binds with the two-carbon acetyl unit of acetyl-CoA to form a six-carbon product called citric acid in the first step of the Krebs Cycle.
A group of nucleotides that does not specify a particular amino acid, but instead serves to notify the ribosome that the protein being translated is complete. (UAA UGA UAG)
An enzyme that polymerizes a strand of DNA by reading an RNA template. It is used by a retrovirus in order to integrate their genome with the host cell genome.
The first part of the large intestine.
Pertaining to the tongue
An enzyme that digests starch into dissaccharides; it is secreted by the salivary glands and the pancreas
Zygote-derived projections that extend into the endometrium of the uterus during pregnancy. Fetal capillaries grow into this structure, which is surrounded by a pool of maternal blood. This facilitates nutrient and gas exchange between the mother and fetus without mixing blood.
A hormone secreted by the small intestine in response to low pH (from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.
The subunits of myofibers, each muscle cell contains hundreds
The release of a secondary oocyte from the ovary at the approximate midpoint of the menstrual cycle. Triggered by a surge in LH.
A virus that infects a bacterium
The ball of capillaries at the beginning of the nephron where blood filtration takes place.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
A network of membranes inside eukaryotic cells involved in lipid synthesis (steroids in gonads), detoxification (liver cells), and/or Ca2+ storage (muscle cells)
A method of DNA protection, utilized by prokaryotes, in which their large circular chromosome is coiled upon itself
The formation of the nervous system during weeks 5-8 of gestation. It begins when a section of the ectoderm invaginates and pinches off to form the neural groove, which ultimately forms the neural tube, from which the brain and spinal cord develop
The layer of ciliated, mucus-covered cells in the respiratory tract. The cilia continually beat, sweeping contaminated mucus upward toward the pharynx
Relative Refractory Period
The period of time where an action potential is possible, but difficult, for the neuron to fire a second action potential due to the fact that membrane is further threshold potential (hyper-polarized)
An organ in the abdominal cavity with two roles. 1) exocrine: to produce digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, which are delivered to the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. 2) endocrine: to secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
This is an enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment. This enzyme is used during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research.
The first bit of the small intestine
Pertaining to the brain
Pertaining to an infection
Pertaining to a male
Pertaining to the intestine
Pertaining to killing
pertaining to color