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GEOG140 Exam 1
Terms in this set (34)
why were the Three Gorges and Aswan High Dams built?
why was the Aswan High Dam built?
Stores water in times of drought (irrigation)
Controls flooding of areas of the Nile Delta
The reservoir created behind the dam is called lake Nasser (1550 miles²) - provides 80,000 tons of fish/year
what were the benefits of the Aswan High Dam?
Caused an increase in phytoplankton (fish food) which made populations thrive
How did the Aswan High Dam negatively impact agriculture in the Nile Delta?
-blocks fertile material
-farmers now use synthetic fertilizer... damages the environment
-soil salinization (floods used to leech out salt)
Why did the coastal community at the Nile Delta suffer because of the Aswan High Dam?
-declining economic base
-rising sea levels
what were some other problems associated with the presence of the Aswan High Dam?
-dam traps fertile material
-trapped sediment leads to erosion
-construction boom+erosion= bad
why is the Nile Delta is sinking and will it be prone to flooding in the future?
soil is not being replaced- dam blocks sediment
-->no new soil is added and sea levels are rising
why did people need to be relocated because of the Three Gorges Dam?
rising water levels submerged villages
why will the river downstream of the Three Gorges Dam be more polluted?
reduction of flushing power of the river
Why will flooding of industrial sites cause potential pollution of the region because of the Three Gorges Dam?
The industrial sites were not cleaned up before they were submerged which lets all of the pollutants go into the water and cause damage to agriculture
benefits of the Three Gorges Dam
HEP (Hydro Electric Power) is used as a source of fuel and is much cleaner than coal burning which leads to less atmospheric pollution
This will result in a reduction of green house gas emissions
There are no nuclear power plants which means no more radiation
The extra electricity will stimulate new manufacturing enterprises which will bring new jobs
What was lost because of the creation of the Three Gorges Dam?
Ancient cultural relics will be submerged
Archeological sites will be destroyed
Natural beauty of the areas will be marred and altered
The sense of community cannot be replaced
when molten rock emerges out of the vent onto the surface it is LAVA
When molten rock is below the earth's surface it is called MAGMA
Define an earthquake
An earthquake is a trembling or shaking movement of the Earth's surface
What produces the release of energy when an earthquake occurs?
tectonic plates are under tension and sometimes they move suddenly
This movement is accompanied by a sudden release of energy
Name for the shockwaves that are produced by an earthquake?
P-wave (Primary wave)- reaches you first
S-wave (Secondary wave)- reaches you afterward
Define the epicenter
The point above the focus on the earth's surface
Define the focus
the point where the movement of tectonic plates occurs
what is the name of the huge cracks that separate one crustal plate from another?
what are the most likely places where earthquakes will occur?
along fault lines
What does the Japanese word tsunami mean?
a wave train, or series of waves, generated in a body of water by an impulsive disturbance that vertically displaces the water column
why are tsunamis dangerous in shallow water, but not in deep water?
The wave slows down because the bottom of the wave drags along the shallow seabed
The energy of the wave remains the same however
This causes the wave to grow in height as the energy that propelled the wave is used to cause it to grow
What to do when a tsunami is approaching
On land: go to higher ground
On sea: go deeper into the water
Define a volcano
a vent or opening at the surface of the earth through which molten material and other materials are ejected
Why are some volcanic eruptions very explosive?
temperature of the magma.
amount of dissolved gases in the magma.
Define a pyroclastic flow
hot gases infused with incandescent ash and larger rock fragments
most destructive of these fiery flows are called nuée ardentes (also called glowing avalanches) and flow over 100 mph
Why do people live in close proximity to a volcano?
People live near volcanos because the ash is rich and nutrient which is great for farming
What events are taking place on Mount Agung on the island of Bali that indicate to officials that there is a high chance of the mountain erupting?
daily tremors from the mountain
How many villagers have been evacuated from Mount Agung on the island of Bali?
More than 140,000
What was date of Mount Agung's eruption?
What was the reason why authorities ordered a full scale evacuation on the Island of Ambae in Vanuatu?
Fears of a major eruption at Manaro Voui volcano......officials decided that they could not risk any lives on Ambae
What are lahars?
mudflows or debris flows downstream of the volcano
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