Unit 3 Key Terms (American History)

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Terms in this set (...)

Federalism
The principle of dividing government into federal and state levels
James Madison
Known as the "Father of the Constitution," he also wrote the Bill of Rights and was president during the War of 1812
Anti-Federalists
This group opposed the ratification of the Constitution until a Bill of Rights was added
The Federalist Papers
These were written to promote the Constitution as good and necessary
George Washington
Nicknamed the "Father of the Country," he led troops in the Revolutionary War, presided over the Constitutional Convention, and was the first president of the United States
Hamilton's Financial Plan
This idea would create a Bank of the United States, assume state debts, and levy taxes on the American people
Tariff of 1789
This law was the first tax on imports; it provided money for the federal government and protected American businesses
Bank of the United States
This institution was meant to manage the economy and print currency; Democratic-Republicans thought it was unconstitutional
Whiskey Rebellion
This conflict involving farmers upset over an excise tax was significant because it proved the strength of the federal government under the Constitution
Alexander Hamilton
He was the first Secretary of Treasury and led the Federalist party; he believed in a strong federal government and envisioned an economy based on manufacturing and commerce
Thomas Jefferson
He was the first Secretary of State and led the Democratic-Republican party; he believed in weak federal government and strong state governments and envisioned an economy based on farming
Jay's Treaty
This was an agreement with Britain that infuriated many Democratic-Republicans; it allowed British to capture American trade ships in exchange for Britain removing forts in the West
Pinckney's Treaty
In this deal between Spain and the United States, America was given access to Mississippi and New Orleans and a border dispute with Florida was settled
Neutrality
Washington's foreign policy that declared that America would not favor any nation and would trade with all
John Adams
President during the time of the XYZ Affair, the Quasi-War, the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
XYZ Affair
Event in which French agents demanded a bribe from American diplomats; led some Americans to call for war with France
Quasi-War
Undeclared military conflict between France and the United States
Alien and Sedition Acts
Laws passed by Federalists that discriminated against immigrants and made it illegal to criticize the Federalist-led government
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Passed in response to Alien and Sedition Acts, said that states could block unconstitutional laws made by the national government
Nullification
According to this principle, states can void federal laws they find to be unconstitutional
Washington's Farewell Address
George Washington's warning to Americans about foreign policy, political parties, and sectionalism
Election of 1800
Also known as a "revolution" because power transferred between parties peacefully
Louisiana Purchase
Event in which Thomas Jefferson doubled the size of the country
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Secret mission to explore the Louisiana Territory and find a water trading route from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established judicial review (the idea that the Supreme Court can rule laws or actions to be unconstitutional)
Impressment
Action of the British in which they kidnapped American sailors
Embargo Act of 1807
Thomas Jefferson's response to tension between France and Britain, which was meant to keep America neutral but ended up sending the country into a recession
War Hawks
Members of Congress who called for war with Britain prior to the War of 1812
Tecumseh
Native American leader that lost to American troops in the Battle of Tippecanoe and then fled to Canada
War of 1812
Military conflict between American and Britain that was the result of impressment and trouble with Native Americans in the West; also called the "Second War of Independence"
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists in which the war with Britain was criticism and ultimately made Federalist look unpatriotic
Treaty of Ghent
Agreement, signed in Belgium, that ended the War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans
Took place at end of War of 1812, a "victory" for America that made Andrew Jackson a hero
Nationalism
Feeling of strong patriotism that resulted from the War of 1812