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A magor factor that creates and maintains stuttering is:

Tourette disorder

A tic that includes nultiple motor tics coupled with vocal tics

Alzheimer disease

A progressive, degentrative disease of the brain most common in individuals over the age of 60 with symptons that include loss of short term memory, inability to concentrate, changes in social skills and personality

Prolonged, heavy use of alochol may result in:

pancreatitis, cirrhosis, and peripheral neuropathy

Personality disorders include:

schizophrenia, histrionic disorder, and paranoia

Anxiety disorders are treated with:

drug therapy, hypnosis and stress eliminators

Indentifiable causes of mental retardation include:

Genetic disorder, infection, trauma, poisoning, early alteration in embryonic development, general medical consition, prematurity and hypoxia

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Anxiety disorder that results from an external event of an overwhelming painful nature

Bipolar disorder

A major affective disorder with abnormal intense mood swings from manic state to depressive syndrome


The psychosis that is characterized by distortion of perception, emotion, and thoughts, and often includes bizzarre behavior

Conversion disorder

The somatoform disorder previously called hysteria

Excessive use of alchol is frequentl associated with:

Anxiety, impotence, amnesia

Criteria for the diagnosis of mental retardation include limitation of:

Communication, Health, saftey,, self care, social or interpersonal skills, self direction, home living, and adaptive functioning


Involves a progressive, general deterioration of the mental capacities of perceiving, thinking and remembering.


Treatment fro Tourette disorder

Treatment of vascular dementia :

Cartoid endarterectomy and drug therapy.

Major depressive disorder

The indicidual experiencing sleep disturbances, fatigue, loss of concentration, appetite changes, despair and hopelessness

Anxiety disorders include:

Panic disoeder, Phobic disorder, Obsessive compulsive disorder


A child who experiences extreme withdrawal and obessive behavior along with lack od social interaction

The phases of greif process are:

denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance

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