CSD 3220 Exam 2, human lang exam 2

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Morphology
The analysis of structure words
-er
One who does the action
-ed
this action already took place
word
any string of sounds that can be preceded or followed by other words
content words
words that convey conceptual meaning (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)
open class
new types of content words can be added to the language "selfie, google, twerk"
Function Words
words that convey grammatical meaning (articles, prepositions, conjunctions)
closed class
new function words are rarely added to a language
simple words
minimal units that cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful units
"is, that, the, team"
complex words
words composed of more than one meaningful unit
"nobody, surprised, losing"
morphemes
smallest unit of meaning or function; a minimal unit of word building or "patterning"
identical spelling does not mean identical morphemes
baker= one who bakes (V + er)
whiter= More white (adj + er)
Free morphemes
can stand alone- single morphemes that constitute as a word
Bound morphemes
must be attatched to other morphemes
- they cannot stand alone as words
ex. "-s" in talks
"-ment" in establishment
Free morphemes has 2 types
lexical or functional
Lexical Morphemes
have a meaning in and of themselves
(content or open class words)
functional morphemes
express a relation between lexical morphemes
(closed class words)
Morphology
The analysis of the structure of words
Word
is any string of sounds that can be separated from what precedes and what follows it in a sentence by other words.
Content words
the words that convey conceptual meaning (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs.) "surprised, team, losing, game"
Open Class
new types of content words can be added to the language ex: selfie
Function Words
the words that convey grammatical meaning (articles, prepositions, conjunctions, etc.)nobody, is, that, the
Closed Class
new function words are very rarely added to a language
Simple Words
minimal units that cannot be broken down into smaller meaningful units. "is, that, the, team, game,"
Complex Words
words composed of more than one meaningful unit "nobody, surprised, losing"
Morphemes
smallest unit of meaning or function
--the minimal unit of word building based on meaning or on "patterning" in the language.
Inflectional
Inflectional morphemes have only grammatical functions (similar to function words) and never change the part of speech of the root
-waited, waits, waiting
Derivational
A morpheme added to a stem or root to form a new stem or word, possibly, but not necessarily, resulting in a change of syntactic category (e.g., -ize in finalize; in- in inconclusive)
- can change grammatical category
Bound Root
Roots that cannot stand alone and can only occur in combination with other morphemes
-ceive: receive, conceive, perceive, deceive
affixes
morphemes which attach to roots and stems: un-love-able
--can be attached to the beginning of a stem or root word (i.e., a prefix) or to the end of a stem or root word (i.e., a suffix).
Roots
the morpheme base upon which other morphemes are attached to create complex words: In loveable, love is the root.
Stems
once an affix has been attached to a root, the result is called a stem. More morphemes may be attachedto a stem. In unlovable, loveable is the stem.
Derivation
Involves adding an affix (prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix) to a stem. This changes the meaning, and possibly the syntactic category, of a stem to result in a new word.
Coinage
Invention of totally new terms
--Trade names such as xerox, google
-epynoms- words based on person or place such as volt or hertz
Eponyms
Words based on the name of a person or place, such as hertz (measure of frequency)
Borrowing
Adopting words from other languages, such as cliché, angst
Compounding
Joining of two separate words to produce a new word, such as blackbird.
Blending
Combination of parts from existing words, generally the beginning of one word and the ending of another, such as brunch or bromance
Clipping/Truncation
Reducing a multisyllabic word to a shorter form, such as gym, exam, phone, or 'sup
Backformation
Creating a new word by reducing it to a new part of speech.

Examples include burger (from hamburger), peddle (from peddler), and babysit (from babysitter).
Conversion/Category Extension
Using the same word form in a new syntactic category.
Some examples are access (N) became -to access (V) and impact (N) became -to impact (V) and impactful(Adj).
Acronym
New words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words, such as
AIDS
UNICEF
Laser
Scuba
Morphological analysis enables us to see
(1)If the units of morphology (inflectional morphemes, derivational morphemes, different types of affixes, simple words, complex words) are universals of human language;
(2) Whether the rules of word formation are universals of human language; and
(3) What the specific morphological structure of a particular language is
Syntax
the rules of sentence formation
--refers to the component of the mental grammar that represents speakers' knowledge of the structure of phrases and sentences.
Linguistic Competence vs. Linguistic Performance
We may not always produce perfectly formed sentences, but we represent the knowledge to produce and comprehend grammatical sentences.
---Our linguistic performance may contain errors, but the representation of syntax is part of our linguistic competence.
syntactic ambiguity
phrases that appear to have more than one meaning. This is because they fit more than one syntactic structure.
Syntactic rules
Syntactic rules state how words can be combined into phrases and sentences and specify the correct word order for a language
noun phrase
is a group of words that occurs in the same place as and serves the same function as a single noun.
examples of noun phrase
"Doctors treat patients"
"People with medical training and degrees"
the head of the noun phrase is the _________
noun
verb phrase
is a single verb or a string of words organized around a head verb.
Types of syntactic phrases
-The words in a noun phrase hang together as a single unit.
-The noun phrase cannot be interrupted with other words, because it is a single unit
-The noun phrase can be replaced with a single pronoun
noun phrase (NP)
is a syntactic category that contains some form of noun or pronoun and functions as the subject or as a type of object in a sentence.
verb phrase (VP)
is a syntactic category that contains a verb and possibly other syntactic units such as NPs and prepositional phrases (e.g., gave the book to the child)
prepositional phrase (PP)
is a syntactic category that contains a preposition as its head and may be followed by a NP. It occurs within NPs and VPs.
Phrase structure rules
are principles of grammar that specify what components belong to each grouping of words and how to order them.
--specify the constituency of syntactic categories.
Lexical categories
Noun: puppy, girl, soup, happiness, pillow
Verb: find, run, sleep, realize, see, want
Preposition: up, down, across, into, from, with
Adjective: red, big, candid, lucky, large
Adverb: again, carefully, luckily, very, fairly
Functional categories
Auxiliary: verbs such as have, and be, and modals such as may, can, will, shall, must
Determiners: the, a, this, that, those, each, every
phrase structure tree
diagram that shows the hierarchical relations between constituents
immediately dominates
A node immediately dominates the categories directly below it
--The VP immediately dominates the V and the NP
Sisters
are categories that are immediately dominated by the same node
--The V (found) and the NP (a puppy) are sisters
one way to form a complex word is through derivation this means that ______ is added to a stem
an affix
the central word of a phrase whose category defines the type of phrase
head
a category of words that can add new words
open class
a morpheme added to a stem or root to form a new stem or word, possibly, but not necessairly resulting in a change of syntactic category
derivational affix
creation of a new word by removing an affix from an old word
back formation
single morpheme that constitutes a word
free morpheme
break up "befriended"
be (bound, derivational prefix) + friend (free morpheme)
break up "televise"
tele (bound, derivational prefix) + vise (bound root)
break up "psychology"
psych (free morpheme) + ology (bound derivational suffix)
phrases structure trees
a diaphragm that shows that hierarchical relations between constituents
S node ________
dominates everything below it
the relationships between two nodes A and B, such that A is directly above B in a phrase structure tree and connected to it
immediately dominates
the central word or phrase whose lexical category defines the types of phrase
head
the component of the mental grammar that represents speakers' knowledge of the structure of phrases and sentences
syntax
the grammatical relation of a noun phrase that is immediately dominated by an s node in a phrase structure trees
subject
a syntactic unit in a phrase structure tree
constituent
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