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380 terms

Semester Two Review

organisms with one tinsel flagellum, and one whiplash flagellum; includes oomycetes, chrysophytes, diatoms, brown algae, and certain other groups
comprised of yellow-green algae, golden-brown algae, and diatoms
golden algae
A biflagellated, photosynthetic protist named for its color, which results from its yellow and brown carotenoids.
yellow-green algae
A rare chromist that derives its color from a yellow pigment that masks chlorophyll and is found mostly in freshwater
A unicellular photosynthetic alga with a unique, glassy cell wall containing silica.
chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2. found in the cell walls of diatoms
brown algae
One of a group of marine, multicellular, autotrophic protists, the most common type of seaweed. Brown algae include the kelps.
water molds, mildews: lack chloroplasts, decomposers
water mold
funguslike protist composed of branching filaments of cells
green algae; live in fresh water, although many are marine, have complex life cycles
Type of living green algae that on the basis of nucleotide sequencing and cellular features is most closely related to land plants.
red algae
most of the world's seaweeds. contain chlorophyll and red pigment. live in tropical waters. multicellular. grow less than 1 meter in length. can grow 260 m below the surface.
downy mildew
major plant pathogens that include the species responsoblf fo rthe mid 1800s Irish potato famine
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
Type of tissue that transports food and water
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food
mutualistic arrangements between fungi and photosynthetic organisms
A richly diverse group of heterotrophs that may be either saprobes or parasites
organism that obtains food from decaying organic matter
the filaments in mycelium. Each consists of cells of interconnecting cytoplasm and chitin-reinforced walls
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae
extracellular digestion and absorption
the process in which fungal cells take in nutrients
Seedless Vascular
contain vascular tissue, produce lignin, have true: roots, stems, and leaves
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
a woody, vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit
A mutualistic association between plant roots and fungi.
Asymmetrical animals in which a sheet of flattened, nonflagellated cells is attached to the sharp spikes of a single cell's extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix is made up of a single cells secretions
group of plants that have specialized reproductive organs but lack vascular tissue; includes mosses and their relatives
Free living, sexually immature stage in the development of many kinds of animals, one that precedes the adult form
one of the simplest animals known, asymmetrical, lacks true tissue, has only 4 different types of cells, and is the closest animal relative of choanoflagellates
first appeared around 600 million years ago and flourished until the cusp of the Cambrian 542 million years ago. Are believed to be animals, but some say they are not. Resemble discs, tubes, mud-filled bags or quilted mattresses. Some paleontologists have suggested that these represent completely extinct lineages that do not resemble any living organism.
Cambrian Period
from 544 million to about 500 million years ago. when the extreme diversification of life forms occured. Changes in land mass, sea level, and climate change.
Bilateral, soft-bodied animals with a reduced coelom.
Skirtlike extension of the body mass that drapes back upon itself
In gastropods, a developmental process in which the visceral mass rotates up to 180°, causing the animal's anus and mantle cavity to be positioned above its head.
a soft-bellied ocean dwelling mollusk whose foot is adapted to form tentacles around its mouth. Supreme predators of the sea during the Cambrian period. All but one do not have a shell. Move by jet propulsion
a tube running from the inside of an animal to the outside so that atmospheric pressure forces the liquid through the tube. Used by cephalopods to move.
invertebrate having jointed limbs and a segmented body with an exoskeleton made of chitin. Have a complete gut, a greatly reduced coelom, an open circulatory system, and are bilateral animals.
the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) including bony or horny parts such as nails or scales or hoofs. Restricts water loss and helps support the weight of a body removed from the buoyancy of water
periodic shedding of a too-small body covering in arthropods.under normal hormonal control
a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's form or structure through cell growth and differentiation.
a class of small arthropod animals that has three separate sections to their bodies: head, thorax, abdomen.
insects, Compact cluster of spore-bearing structures found in seedless vascular plants
Malphigian Tubules
excretory system for insects, allows wastes to be excreted and H₂0 to be reabsorbed
Single-celled, but have a nucleus. Most have mitochondria, golgi bodies, and endoplasmic reticulum. Have more than one chromosome. Many have chloroplasts. Divide by way of mitosis, meiosis, or both.
Seven, a horizontal, underground stem that produces new leaves, shoots, and roots
Pertaining to a taxon derived from a single ancestral species that gave rise to no species in any other taxa.
pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors
Multicelled heterotrophs that ingest other organisms or some portion of them
The sibling taxon of animals and fungi. Is a model for the origin of animals
What type of tissue do all types of animals contain?
Start of the outer part of epidermis and the nervous system. In the embryo.
Start of the gut's inner lining and the organs derived from it. In the embryo
Gives rise to many internal organs. In the embryo. It played a big role in the evolution of large, internally complex animals
Filament-like absorptive structures that increase the surface area of cells
The body has a front to back axis, with an anchor/ leading end and a posterior/ trailing end.
Concentration of sensory receptors at the anterior end of an animal. Evolved into a distinct head and a brain.
Radial Symmetry
Body parts are organized around the main axis. Found mostly in water animals
Organisms in which the mouth develops before the anus. Examples: Arthropods, Mollusks
Undergoes radial cleavage and the anus forms before the mouth.
a body cavity completely lined with mesoderm. Between the gut and body wall
A body cavity that's not fully lined with tissue derived from mesoderm. Incomplete coelom
radially symmetrical animals having saclike bodies with only one opening and tentacles with stinging structures
in cnidarians, a stinging cell that is used to inject a toxin into prey
science dealing with the functions of living things
Surface-to-volume ratio
A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, but the surface area increases with the square.
the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
Passive Transport
transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion
Active Transport
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
concentration gradient
the difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance
Interstitial Fluid
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
fluid portion of blood
Sensory Receptor
Cells or cell parts that detect stimuli. They then send signals to the brain
control center; determines the set point at which the variable is maintained; receives input from receptor; determines appropriate response
an organ (a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to nerve impulses
Positive Feedback Mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that increases the stimulus to push the variable farther from its originial value
Negative Feedback Mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that reduces the output of the stimulus
a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
Organ System
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Increase in number, size, and volume of a measured quantity
Series of stages in which specialized tissue organs, and organ systems form. Measured qualitatively
First layer of cells to form in the embryos of nearly all animals
Layers of cells covering internal or external surfaces. Arises from the ectoderm
Simple Epithelium
Epithelium that has cells that form a layer that is only one cell thick
Stratified Epithelium
Epithelium that has cells that form two or more layers
Pollen Grain
structure consisting of a few haploid cells surrounded by a thick protective wall that contains a male gametophyte of a seed plant
a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) released from a gland or cell
the bodily process of discharging waste matter
organs in the body that secrete and manufacture materials for the body
Organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
Exocrine Gland
gland that releases its secretions through tubelike structures called ducts
Endocrine Gland
Gland that releases its secretions directly into the bloodstream
Adhering Junction
Cell junction composed of adhesion proteins anchors cells to each other or to extracellular matrix.
Tight Junction
a type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells
Gap Junction
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.
Connective Tissue
tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together
A generic connective tissue cell that produces fibers; the progenitor of all other connective tissue cell types.
Loose Connective Tissue
The most widespread connective tissue in the vertebrate body. It binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organs in place.
Fibrous Irregular Connective Tissue
Strong, but flexible enough to allow movement
Reinforced by ligaments
Fibrous Regular Connective Tissue
bundles of collagen fibers with fibroblasts crowded between fibers forming tendons and ligaments, used for tensile strength
connects bone to bone
strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone
Bone Tissue
Most rigid connective tissue, Internally supports body structures, very active tissue, heals much more rapidly than cartilage
Adipose Tissue
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
White Blood Cells
blood cells that rid the body of foreign microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses
Red Blood Cells
blood cells containing hemoglobin that carry oxygen through the bloodstream
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation
What three types of tissue do all vertebrates have?
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle
Muscle Tissue
made up of many cells arranges in parallel with one another, in tight or loose arrays. coordinated contractions of layers or rings of muscles move the whole body or it's component parts
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Striated, voluntary , more than one nucleus so lots of DNA to code for protein synthesis, functional partner of bone or cartilage
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
occurs only in the heart, where it constitutes the bulk of the heart walls; striated; not voluntary; contains sarcomeres
the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines
Smooth Muscle Tissue
no striations and involuntary, found in walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach urinary bladder and respiratory packages, forces food and other substances through internal body channels
Nervous Tissue
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
sensory neuron
picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse to be delivered to the central nervous system
a nerve cell that relays messages between nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord
Motor Neuron
nerve cell that carries signals from the central nervous system (brain/spinal cord) to muscle or gland cells
Central Nervous System
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
bone forming cell
Mature bone cell
cell that functions in the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue
Red marrow
makes red blood cells. located in bones
Yellow marrow
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
What is the first skeleton to form in vertebrates made of?
Areas, of contact / near contact, between bones.
a flexible rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the body in the lowest chordates and lowest vertebrates and in embryos of higher vertebrates
Intervertebral Disks
made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other. Part of the spinal cord
Herniated Disk
the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
26 small bones that make up your backbone
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
the extension of a neuron, long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron
trigger zone
where a nerve impulse is started
output zone
The part of a neuron, usually corresponding to the axon terminals, at which the cell sends information to another cell.
substance that triggers an immune response
Innate Immunity
immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
Adaptive Immunity
(specific immunity) aquired ability to recognize and destroy a pathogen or its products. Requires exposure of the immune system to the pathogen
Large white blood cell that removes bacteria, foreign particles, and dead cells
White blood cell that releases enzymes
defend against bacterial/fungal infections, their activity and death in large numbers cause pus
any of various proteins secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
Type of white blood cell that produces antibodies that help destroy pathogens
Alert the immune system
animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium
small translucent lancet-shaped burrowing marine animal
extinct fishlike jawless vertebrate having a heavily armored body
A member of an extinct class of fishlike vertebrates that had jaws
the part of the skull of a vertebrate that frames the mouth and holds the teeth
organ of locomotion and balance in fishes and some other aquatic animals
organs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with water
swim bladder
an air-filled sac near the spinal column in many fishes that helps maintain buoyancy
Cartilagenous fish
fish that have skeletons made out of cartiledge, like sharks, scales and rays
Ray-finned fish
a type of vertebrate having a rigid skeleton, with bony spines, and a mouth at the apex of the body
a vertebrate animal having four feet or legs or leglike appendages
lobe-finned fish
fish that are lobe liked, fleshy fins, probably anscestors of first land vertebrate
air-breathing fish having an elongated body and fleshy paired fins
from 405 million to 345 million years ago. when animals first started walking
Devonian, Vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
the stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells
the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
a single reproductive cell that grows into a new plant
from 230 million to 190 million years ago. Period in which dinosaurs arose and mammals first appeared
warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings
subclass of mammals that have hair and mammary glands but reproduce by laying eggs
one of a family of mammals that nurse their offspring in a pouch
Roger Sperry
studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
Left Side Brain
controls the right side of the body and controls logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language
Right Side Brain
controls the left side of the body and controls emotional and creative impulses, including appreciation of most music, art, and poetry
Resting Membrane Potential
The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active. Usually 70 millivolts
Action Potential
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
the structure within the muscle fibers that shorten to cause skeletal muscle fiber contraction.
protein that mainly makes up the thin filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells
Sliding-Filament Model
muscle contraction-actin & myosin slide past each other
The posterior portion of the brain that controles movement and muscle coordination
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Organelle of the muscle fiber that stores calcium
moves tropomyosin aside & exposes myosin binding sites when Ca+ is released
MHC Marker
proteins that present or "show" antigens like bacteria to other immune cells. Instead of being targets, they are helper proteins of the immune system.
T Cell
Act against body cells that have specific antigen bits attached
Class of antigen receptors at the surface of T cells
A new B cell or T cell makes receptors for only one kind of antigen
B Cell
a white blood cell that matures in bones and makes antibodies
Collection of different antigen receptors on all B and T cells in the body
The immune system remembers past antigens so that it is easier to combat them in the future
Cell-Mediated Response
Directly kills infected or altered body cells
Antibody-mediated response
Targets antigen detected in blood or interstitial fluid
lymph node
contains specialized lymphocytes that are capable of destroying pathogens
Autoimmune response
A misdirected attack against one's own tissues
Anaphylatic Shock
Life threatening response to an allergen
Primary Deficiency
Outcome of mutant genes or abnormal developmental steps that are present at birth
Secondary Deficiency
Losses of immune function after exposure to some outside agent, such as a virus
any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
rod-shaped prokaryote
spirally twisted elongate rodlike prokaryote usually living in stagnant water
sticky mesh that encloses the cell wall of prokaryotic cells. Made up of polysaccharides and or polypeptides
Frontal Lobe
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior.
Temporal Lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
Broca's Area
controls language expression-an area of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Parietal Lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
Occipital Lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
Primary Motor Cortex
The region of the cerebral cortex that directly controls the movements of the body; located posterior to the frontal lobes
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
area of the parietal lobe where messages from the sense receptors are registered
Limbic System
a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
the large mass of the forebrain, consisting of two hemispheres
Prefrontal Cortex
part of frontal lobe responsible for thinking, planning, and language
Affects motivation. More active in extroverts and risk takers
limbic system component that regulates hunger, body temperature and other functions
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
A type of protist characterized by great flexibility and the presence of pseudopodia.
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
small pouch, which has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum
Brachiocephalic Artery
The first major branch off of the aorta and the major artery to the forelimbs and head.
Brachiocephalic Vein
Vein formed by the union of the jugular and subclavian veins above the heart. Carries deoxygenated blood to right atrium of heart.
a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart
large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the tissues of the body
a tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and the body cells
Towards the tail; Relative Location
Common Carotid Artery
runs upward in the neck and divides into the external and internal carotid arteries
A muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
External Nare
the openings connecting the nasal cavity to the outside. air passes through these openings during respiration
blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney
Renal Cortex
the part of the kidney containing the glomeruli and the convoluted tubules. outer region of the kidney
Glomerular Capsule
a double-walled globe at the proximal end of a nephron that encloses the glomerular capillaries. aka Bowman's capsule
Bowman's Capsule
A network of capillaries encased in a membrane in the kidney for the purpose of filtration
Small Intestine
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
Large Intestine
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg can develop
Thymus Gland
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces hormones and aids in producing immunity
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
a virus that infects bacteria
ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts
contractile hollow tail fiber that punctures through outer membrane and injects DNA from capsid to host cell cytoplasm
Base Plate
part of virus that connects with host cell surface to enable infection
a state in which the body is not functioning normally
the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease
infectious particles composed of protein with no nucleic acid
vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
Needle-bearing tree that produce seeds in cones
secreted by fat cells; signals brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
a hormone secreted by an empty stomach that sends signals to the brain when a person is hungry.
hormone the small intestine secretes to stimulate release of pancreatic juice from pancreas and bile from gallbladder
An animal, such as a cow or a sheep, with an elaborate, multicompartmentalized stomach specialized for an herbivorous diet.
an enlargement of the digestive tract of some invertebrates, such as annelids and insects, that grinds food; a muscular region in the digestive tract of birds that grinds and softens food
Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile
Organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
gland that makes digestive enzymes and secretes them into the small intestine
food is churned by muscles here, chemicles like hydrochloric acid and pepsin added and forms a liquid called chyme
Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
Accessory Gland
paired glands found in the reproductive tracts of both male and female insects, although their functions differ in the two sexes. They improve the function of sperm and eggs. In stinging insects, the accessory glands make venom.
the pouch where food is digested in animals
where does protein digestion begin?
where does lipid/ fat digestion begin?
small intestine
Where does carbohydrate digestion begin?
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
opening to the larynx
circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
Where does the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins end?
Small Intestine
Gastric Fluid
a liquid secreted by glands in the stomach
Soft Palate
tissue at the back of the roof of the mouth; separates the mouth from the nasopharynx
Hard Palate
The hard front portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity
Membrane that connects parts of the small intestine
projections that increase the cell's surface area
Small projections on the walls of the small intestines that increase surface area
What is the order in which food passes through the digestive system?
Mouth, Glottis, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus
Countercurrent flow
Flow of two fluids in opposing directions. Pivotal to respiration in animals with gills
very small branches of bronchi that extend into the lungs
thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Pulmonary Artery
carries deoxygentated blood from the heart to the lungs
Pulmonary Vein
carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Open Circulatory System
a circulatory system that allows the blood to flow out of the blood vessels and into various body cavities so that the cells are in direct contact with the blood
Closed Circulatory System
system in which blood does not directly contact cells and is contained within a network of blood vessels
Pulmonary Circuit
circuit of blood flow that carries blood between the heart and lungs
Systemic Circuit
Circuit of blood that carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body.
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
membranous sac enclosing the heart
muscular, middle layer of the heart
the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the heart's inner wall
Coronary Artery
The artery that supplies heart tissue with blood
Renal Artery
blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood to the kidney
Renal Vein
Blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
a vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed
Blood Pressure
the pressure that is exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels
widening of the blood vessels that allows for increased blood flow
the narrowing of blood vessels. When blood vessels become narrow, blood pressure increases.
waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
Kidney Medulla
the darker colored, inner region of the kidney. contains "pyramids".
female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones; ovary or testis
is a coiled tube within the scrotum in which the sperm matures
Prostate Gland
exocrine gland, in men, at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes the fluid part of semen into the urethra during ejaculation
inner lining of the uterus
Corpus Luteum
endocrine tissue which produces hormones, estrogen, and progesterone which prepares the uterine lining for receiving an embryo
Where does filtration of liquids occur?
Glomerular Capillaries in Bowman's Capsule
tees that lose their leaves in the fall
type of gynmnosperm with palmate leaves and massive cones (most often found in the tropics and subtropics)
deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan-shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds, only surviving species that has fan-shaped leaves.
A type of woody, vinelike, or shrubby gymnosperm. have vessels in their xylem
The technical term for clusters of sporophylls known commonly as cones, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants.
first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant
has two or more cotyledons, branched veins, flower parts in multiples of four or five. Include maples, oaks, elms, lettuce, cabbage, and cacti.
angiosperm with two cotyledons inside its seed, flower parts in multiples of four or five, and vascular bundles in rings. Include orchids, palms, lilies, grass, and sugar cane.
cluster of tissue that is responsible for continuing growth throughout a plant's lifetime
Apical Meristem
group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems and roots
Lateral Meristem
A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.
Vascular Tissue System
A system formed by xylem and phloem throughout a vascular plant, serving as a transport system for water and nutrients, respectively.
Dermal Tissue System
The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.
Ground Tissue System
Plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support.
a short, irregular sclerenchyma cell in nutshells and seed coats and scattered through the parenchyma of some plants
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
parenchyma cells inside the ring of vascular tissue in dicot stems
Terminal Bud
Extends the shoot system during the growing season. Main zone of primary growth
Lateral Bud
Buds along the sides of a stem that givie rise to new branches.
Primary Growth
type of plant growth that occurs at the tips of roots and shoots
Secondary Growth
Growth produced by lateral meristems, which thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.
Vascular Bundle
A strand of vascular tissues in a stem or leaf. Contain a stem cortex, primary phloem, primary xylem, and a pith
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
Root Hair
A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
Taproot System
root system made up of one large root and many small, thin roots
Fibrous Root System
a mat of generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface, with no root standing out as the main one
Root Nodule
lump on a plant root that contains nitrogen-fixing bacteria
symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots
Nitrogen Fixation
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia that plants can absorb
Casparian Strip
waterproof strip that surrounds plant endodermal cells and is involved in the one-way passage of materials into the vascular cylinder in plant roots
found in plants standing in water, functions to regulate entry of water and ions into cortex. Cell layer just beneath the surface of the roots of many plants
Evaporation of water molecules from leaves, stems, and other plant pars. Especially through stomata
Small openings on the underside of a leaf that controls gas exchange
the movement of water, mineral salts, and organic substances from one part of the plant to another
Cohesion-Tension Theory
causes most of the xylem movement, as H20 evaporates from open stomata, water is pulled up capillaries to replace what was lost
any plant region where products are being used or stored
Pressure Flow Theory
Water, by osmosis, creates pressure along with the sucrose already in the phloem and pushed solution toward sink
having a strong affinity for water molecules
avoids water molecules
Male reproductive part of the flower; made up of an anther and a filament
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
flower structure in which haploid male gametophytes are produced
outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing
the whorl of sepals of a flower collectively forming the outer floral envelope or layer of the perianth enclosing and supporting the developing bud
Pollination Vector
any agent that moves pollen grains from one plant to another (ex: wind and bees)
a sweet liquid produced by many flowering plants. used to attract pollinators
Simple Fruit
A fruit derived from a single carpel or several fused carpels. Cherries and apples
Aggregate Fruit
A fruit derived from a single flower that has more than one carpel. Strawberries and raspberries
Multiple Fruit
A fruit derived from an inflorescence, a group of flowers tightly clustered together. Figs and pineapples
True Fruit
a fruit in which all tissues are derived from a ripened ovary and its contents-protects and aids dispersal. Tomatoes and pea pods
Accessory Fruit
A fruit, or assemblage of fruits, in which the fleshy parts are derived largely or entirely from tissues other than the ovary. Watermelons and apples
Dry fruits that split at maturity. Legume and milkweed
dry fruits that remain closed at maturity. Acorns and strawberries
A type of fruit having a single seed enclosed in a hard layer and that is covered with soft, often juicy flesh, as in cherries and peaches.
a simple fleshy fruit that includes a fleshy ovary wall and one or more carpels and seeds; examples are the fruits of grapes, tomatoes, and bananas
a fleshy fruit having seed chambers and an outer fleshy part. Apple and pears
plants that have prickly fruits and are related to the thistle
grasslike or rushlike plant growing in wet places having solid stems, narrow grasslike leaves and spikelets of inconspicuous flowers
the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
A response of a plant or animal to gravity.
a specialized plastid that contains dense starch grains and may play a role in detecting gravity
a plant movement in response to light coming from one direction
a plants growth in response to touch
the plant hormone that speeds up the rate of growth of plant cells
The covering of the young shoot of the embryo of a grass seed.
How do the seeds of tulip trees, american elms, and maples get transported?
They have winged fruit
How do the seeds of dandelions, thistles, cattails, and milkweed get transported?
They have an outward pluming "parachute"
How do the seeds of orchids get transported?
They are small and they drift through the air
How do impatiens capensis transport their seeds?
They jetteson their seeds like and explosion
How do fleshy fruits and nuts transport their seeds?
Getting eaten and moved by animals
How do cocklebur, bur clover, and bedstraw seeds get transported?
They have hooks, spines, hairs, or sticky surfaces that can adhere to feathers, feet, or fur
How do sedge fruits and coconut palm fruits transport their seeds?
Through water