organisms with one tinsel flagellum, and one whiplash flagellum; includes oomycetes, chrysophytes, diatoms, brown algae, and certain other groups
A biflagellated, photosynthetic protist named for its color, which results from its yellow and brown carotenoids.
A rare chromist that derives its color from a yellow pigment that masks chlorophyll and is found mostly in freshwater
chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2. found in the cell walls of diatoms
One of a group of marine, multicellular, autotrophic protists, the most common type of seaweed. Brown algae include the kelps.
Type of living green algae that on the basis of nucleotide sequencing and cellular features is most closely related to land plants.
most of the world's seaweeds. contain chlorophyll and red pigment. live in tropical waters. multicellular. grow less than 1 meter in length. can grow 260 m below the surface.
major plant pathogens that include the species responsoblf fo rthe mid 1800s Irish potato famine
the filaments in mycelium. Each consists of cells of interconnecting cytoplasm and chitin-reinforced walls
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
Asymmetrical animals in which a sheet of flattened, nonflagellated cells is attached to the sharp spikes of a single cell's extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix is made up of a single cells secretions
group of plants that have specialized reproductive organs but lack vascular tissue; includes mosses and their relatives
Free living, sexually immature stage in the development of many kinds of animals, one that precedes the adult form
one of the simplest animals known, asymmetrical, lacks true tissue, has only 4 different types of cells, and is the closest animal relative of choanoflagellates
first appeared around 600 million years ago and flourished until the cusp of the Cambrian 542 million years ago. Are believed to be animals, but some say they are not. Resemble discs, tubes, mud-filled bags or quilted mattresses. Some paleontologists have suggested that these represent completely extinct lineages that do not resemble any living organism.
from 544 million to about 500 million years ago. when the extreme diversification of life forms occured. Changes in land mass, sea level, and climate change.
In gastropods, a developmental process in which the visceral mass rotates up to 180°, causing the animal's anus and mantle cavity to be positioned above its head.
a soft-bellied ocean dwelling mollusk whose foot is adapted to form tentacles around its mouth. Supreme predators of the sea during the Cambrian period. All but one do not have a shell. Move by jet propulsion
a tube running from the inside of an animal to the outside so that atmospheric pressure forces the liquid through the tube. Used by cephalopods to move.
invertebrate having jointed limbs and a segmented body with an exoskeleton made of chitin. Have a complete gut, a greatly reduced coelom, an open circulatory system, and are bilateral animals.
the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) including bony or horny parts such as nails or scales or hoofs. Restricts water loss and helps support the weight of a body removed from the buoyancy of water
a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's form or structure through cell growth and differentiation.
a class of small arthropod animals that has three separate sections to their bodies: head, thorax, abdomen.
excretory system for insects, allows wastes to be excreted and H₂0 to be reabsorbed
Single-celled, but have a nucleus. Most have mitochondria, golgi bodies, and endoplasmic reticulum. Have more than one chromosome. Many have chloroplasts. Divide by way of mitosis, meiosis, or both.
Pertaining to a taxon derived from a single ancestral species that gave rise to no species in any other taxa.
Gives rise to many internal organs. In the embryo. It played a big role in the evolution of large, internally complex animals
The body has a front to back axis, with an anchor/ leading end and a posterior/ trailing end.
Concentration of sensory receptors at the anterior end of an animal. Evolved into a distinct head and a brain.
A body cavity that's not fully lined with tissue derived from mesoderm. Incomplete coelom
radially symmetrical animals having saclike bodies with only one opening and tentacles with stinging structures
A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, but the surface area increases with the square.
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
control center; determines the set point at which the variable is maintained; receives input from receptor; determines appropriate response
Positive Feedback Mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that increases the stimulus to push the variable farther from its originial value
a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function
Series of stages in which specialized tissue organs, and organ systems form. Measured qualitatively
structure consisting of a few haploid cells surrounded by a thick protective wall that contains a male gametophyte of a seed plant
a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) released from a gland or cell
Organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
Cell junction composed of adhesion proteins anchors cells to each other or to extracellular matrix.
a type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.
A generic connective tissue cell that produces fibers; the progenitor of all other connective tissue cell types.
Loose Connective Tissue
The most widespread connective tissue in the vertebrate body. It binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organs in place.
Fibrous Irregular Connective Tissue
Strong, but flexible enough to allow movement
Reinforced by ligaments
Fibrous Regular Connective Tissue
bundles of collagen fibers with fibroblasts crowded between fibers forming tendons and ligaments, used for tensile strength
Most rigid connective tissue, Internally supports body structures, very active tissue, heals much more rapidly than cartilage
White Blood Cells
blood cells that rid the body of foreign microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses
made up of many cells arranges in parallel with one another, in tight or loose arrays. coordinated contractions of layers or rings of muscles move the whole body or it's component parts
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Striated, voluntary , more than one nucleus so lots of DNA to code for protein synthesis, functional partner of bone or cartilage
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
occurs only in the heart, where it constitutes the bulk of the heart walls; striated; not voluntary; contains sarcomeres
the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines
Smooth Muscle Tissue
no striations and involuntary, found in walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach urinary bladder and respiratory packages, forces food and other substances through internal body channels
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response
picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse to be delivered to the central nervous system
a nerve cell that relays messages between nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord
nerve cell that carries signals from the central nervous system (brain/spinal cord) to muscle or gland cells
Central Nervous System
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
a flexible rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the body in the lowest chordates and lowest vertebrates and in embryos of higher vertebrates
made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other. Part of the spinal cord
the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
the extension of a neuron, long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron
The part of a neuron, usually corresponding to the axon terminals, at which the cell sends information to another cell.
(specific immunity) aquired ability to recognize and destroy a pathogen or its products. Requires exposure of the immune system to the pathogen
defend against bacterial/fungal infections, their activity and death in large numbers cause pus
any of various proteins secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium
a type of vertebrate having a rigid skeleton, with bony spines, and a mouth at the apex of the body
fish that are lobe liked, fleshy fins, probably anscestors of first land vertebrate
Devonian, Vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
the stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells
the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
from 230 million to 190 million years ago. Period in which dinosaurs arose and mammals first appeared
studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
Left Side Brain
controls the right side of the body and controls logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language
Right Side Brain
controls the left side of the body and controls emotional and creative impulses, including appreciation of most music, art, and poetry
Resting Membrane Potential
The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active. Usually 70 millivolts
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
the structure within the muscle fibers that shorten to cause skeletal muscle fiber contraction.
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
proteins that present or "show" antigens like bacteria to other immune cells. Instead of being targets, they are helper proteins of the immune system.
Outcome of mutant genes or abnormal developmental steps that are present at birth
Losses of immune function after exposure to some outside agent, such as a virus
sticky mesh that encloses the cell wall of prokaryotic cells. Made up of polysaccharides and or polypeptides
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior.
controls language expression-an area of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
Primary Motor Cortex
The region of the cerebral cortex that directly controls the movements of the body; located posterior to the frontal lobes
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
area of the parietal lobe where messages from the sense receptors are registered
a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
The first major branch off of the aorta and the major artery to the forelimbs and head.
Vein formed by the union of the jugular and subclavian veins above the heart. Carries deoxygenated blood to right atrium of heart.
Common Carotid Artery
runs upward in the neck and divides into the external and internal carotid arteries
the openings connecting the nasal cavity to the outside. air passes through these openings during respiration
the part of the kidney containing the glomeruli and the convoluted tubules. outer region of the kidney
a double-walled globe at the proximal end of a nephron that encloses the glomerular capillaries. aka Bowman's capsule
A network of capillaries encased in a membrane in the kidney for the purpose of filtration
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces hormones and aids in producing immunity
contractile hollow tail fiber that punctures through outer membrane and injects DNA from capsid to host cell cytoplasm
the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease
a hormone secreted by an empty stomach that sends signals to the brain when a person is hungry.
hormone the small intestine secretes to stimulate release of pancreatic juice from pancreas and bile from gallbladder
An animal, such as a cow or a sheep, with an elaborate, multicompartmentalized stomach specialized for an herbivorous diet.
an enlargement of the digestive tract of some invertebrates, such as annelids and insects, that grinds food; a muscular region in the digestive tract of birds that grinds and softens food
Organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
food is churned by muscles here, chemicles like hydrochloric acid and pepsin added and forms a liquid called chyme
paired glands found in the reproductive tracts of both male and female insects, although their functions differ in the two sexes. They improve the function of sperm and eggs. In stinging insects, the accessory glands make venom.
What is the order in which food passes through the digestive system?
Mouth, Glottis, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus
Flow of two fluids in opposing directions. Pivotal to respiration in animals with gills
thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Open Circulatory System
a circulatory system that allows the blood to flow out of the blood vessels and into various body cavities so that the cells are in direct contact with the blood
Closed Circulatory System
system in which blood does not directly contact cells and is contained within a network of blood vessels
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
the narrowing of blood vessels. When blood vessels become narrow, blood pressure increases.
waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
exocrine gland, in men, at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes the fluid part of semen into the urethra during ejaculation
endocrine tissue which produces hormones, estrogen, and progesterone which prepares the uterine lining for receiving an embryo
type of gynmnosperm with palmate leaves and massive cones (most often found in the tropics and subtropics)
deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan-shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds, only surviving species that has fan-shaped leaves.
The technical term for clusters of sporophylls known commonly as cones, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants.
has two or more cotyledons, branched veins, flower parts in multiples of four or five. Include maples, oaks, elms, lettuce, cabbage, and cacti.
angiosperm with two cotyledons inside its seed, flower parts in multiples of four or five, and vascular bundles in rings. Include orchids, palms, lilies, grass, and sugar cane.
group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems and roots
Vascular Tissue System
A system formed by xylem and phloem throughout a vascular plant, serving as a transport system for water and nutrients, respectively.
Dermal Tissue System
The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.
Ground Tissue System
Plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support.
a short, irregular sclerenchyma cell in nutshells and seed coats and scattered through the parenchyma of some plants
Growth produced by lateral meristems, which thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.
A strand of vascular tissues in a stem or leaf. Contain a stem cortex, primary phloem, primary xylem, and a pith
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
Fibrous Root System
a mat of generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface, with no root standing out as the main one
waterproof strip that surrounds plant endodermal cells and is involved in the one-way passage of materials into the vascular cylinder in plant roots
found in plants standing in water, functions to regulate entry of water and ions into cortex. Cell layer just beneath the surface of the roots of many plants
Evaporation of water molecules from leaves, stems, and other plant pars. Especially through stomata
the movement of water, mineral salts, and organic substances from one part of the plant to another
causes most of the xylem movement, as H20 evaporates from open stomata, water is pulled up capillaries to replace what was lost
Pressure Flow Theory
Water, by osmosis, creates pressure along with the sucrose already in the phloem and pushed solution toward sink
outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing
the whorl of sepals of a flower collectively forming the outer floral envelope or layer of the perianth enclosing and supporting the developing bud
A fruit derived from a single flower that has more than one carpel. Strawberries and raspberries
A fruit derived from an inflorescence, a group of flowers tightly clustered together. Figs and pineapples
a fruit in which all tissues are derived from a ripened ovary and its contents-protects and aids dispersal. Tomatoes and pea pods
A fruit, or assemblage of fruits, in which the fleshy parts are derived largely or entirely from tissues other than the ovary. Watermelons and apples
A type of fruit having a single seed enclosed in a hard layer and that is covered with soft, often juicy flesh, as in cherries and peaches.
a simple fleshy fruit that includes a fleshy ovary wall and one or more carpels and seeds; examples are the fruits of grapes, tomatoes, and bananas
grasslike or rushlike plant growing in wet places having solid stems, narrow grasslike leaves and spikelets of inconspicuous flowers
a specialized plastid that contains dense starch grains and may play a role in detecting gravity
How do the seeds of dandelions, thistles, cattails, and milkweed get transported?
They have an outward pluming "parachute"
How do cocklebur, bur clover, and bedstraw seeds get transported?
They have hooks, spines, hairs, or sticky surfaces that can adhere to feathers, feet, or fur