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Chapter 13 (MGS 3400 ON FINAL EXAM)
Chapter 13 Notes
Terms in this set (50)
the use of power and influence to direct the activities of follows toward goal achievement.
the ability to influence others and having the ability to resist others' influence on them.
derives from a position of authority inside the organization and is sometimes referred to as "formal authority."
Those with legitimate power have the understood right to ask others to do things that are considered within the scope of their authority.
exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards another person wants. For example, managers generally have control over raises, performance evaluations, awards, more desirable job assignments, and the resources an employee might require to perform a job effectively.
exists when a person has control over punishments in an organization. Coercive power operates primarily on the principle of fear. It exists when one person believes that another has the ability to punish him or her and is willing to use that power.
derives from a person's expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend. When people have a track record of high performance, the ability to solve problems, or specific knowledge that's necessary to accomplish tasks, they're more likely to be able to influence other people who need that expertise.
exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person. This desire is generally derived from affection, admiration, or loyalty toward a specific individual.
Correlation with organizational committment
The personal forms of power are more strongly related to organization commitment and job performance than are the organizational forms.
the degree to which people have alternatives in accessing resources. Leaders that control resources to which no one else has access can use their power to gain greater influence.
the degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own. If managers are forced to follow organizational policies and rules, their ability to influence others is reduced.
how important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks.
how aware others are of a leader's power and position. If everyone knows that a leader has a certain level of power, the ability to use that power to influence others is likely to be high.
the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others.
the use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one.
a tactic designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction. to use this tactic effectively, leaders must have insight into what kinds of things are important to the target.
occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request. This tactic increases commitment from the target, who now has a stake in seeing that his or her opinions are valued.
a leader uses this by attempting to make it easier for the target to complete the request. This could involve the leader helping complete the task, providing required resources, or removing obstacles that make task completion difficult.
the use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influence. Commonly referred to as "sucking up" This has been showed to be more effective when used as a long-term strategy and not nearly as effective when used immediately prior to making an influence attempt.
occur when the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty. The stronger the friendship, the more successful the attempt is likely to be.
used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request. This type of request requires that the requestor have something of value to offer.
occurs when the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally. Differs from rational persuasion in that it focuses solely on the benefit to the target as opposed to simple logic or benefits to the group or organization. It differs from exchange, in that the benefit is not necessarily something that the requestor gives to the target but rather something that results from the action.
the use of coercive power through threats and demands. Such coercion is a poor way to influence others and may only bring benefits over the short term.
occur when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target. These people could be peers, subordinates, or one of the target's superiors.
Two points about leaders' use of influence tactics
1) influence tactics tend to be most successful when used in combination.
2) the influence tactics that tend to be most successful are those that are "softer" in nature. Rational persuasion, consultation, inspirational appeals, and collaboration take advantage of personal rather than organizational forms of power.
occurs when the target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request.
occurs when targets of influence are willing to do what the leader asks, but they do it with a degree of ambivalence. It reflects a shift in the behaviors of employees but not their attitudes.
occurs when the target refuses to perform the influence request and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it. It could come in the form of making excuses, trying to influence the requestor in return, or simply refusing to carry out the request.
can be seen as actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests.
the ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives. Two aspects are networking ability, or an adeptness at identifying and developing diverse contacts, and social astuteness, or the tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior.
involves having an unassuming and convincing personal style that's flexible enough to adapt to different situations
involves appearing to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness.
(high assertiveness, low cooperation) occurs when one party attempts to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other party's results. Win-lose approach to conflict management
(low assertiveness, high cooperation) occurs when one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way. Leaders will typically use this strategy when the issue is really not that important to them but is very important to the other party.
(low assertiveness, high cooperation) occurs when one party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict, or postpone the conflict to gather information or let things cool down.
(high assertiveness, high cooperation) occurs when both parties work together to maximize outcomes. (win-win form of conflict resolution) It is regarded as the most effective form of conflict resolution; however, it's the most difficult to come by because it requires full sharing of information by both parties, a full discussion of concerns, relatively equal power between parties, and a lot of time investment to arrive at a resolution.
(moderate assertiveness, moderate cooperation) occurs when conflict is resolved through give-and-take concessions. Perhaps the most common form of conflict resolution, whereby each party's losses are offset by gains and vice versa. It is seen as an easy form of resolution, maintains relations between parties, and generally results in favorable evaluations for the leader.
a process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences. Can take place inside the organization or when dealing with organizational outsiders. It involves settling a contract dispute between labor and management, determining a purchasing price for products, haggling over a performance review rating, or determining the starting salary for a new employee.
negotiation types: distributive bargaining
involves win-lose negotiating over a "fixed-pie" of resources, When one person gains, the other person loses (also known as a "zero-sum" condition). classic example of this type of negotiation is the purchase of a car.
negotiation types: integrative bargaining
aimed at accomplishing a win-win scenario. Involves the use of problem solving and mutual respect to achieve an outcome that's satisfying for both parties. Leaders who thoroughly understand the conflict style of collaboration are likely to thrive in these types of negotiations. (counting distributive bargaining as well)
negotiation stages: preparation
arguably the single most important stage of the negotiating process, during this stage each party determines what its goals are for the negotiation and whether or not the other party has anything to offer.
describes each negotiator's bottom line. In other words, at what point are you willing to walk away? At this point, the negotiator is actually better off not negotiating at all.
negotiation stages: exchanging information
in this nonconfrontational process, each party makes a case for its position and attempts to put all favorable information on the table. Each party also informs the other party how it has arrived at the conclusions it has and which issues it believes are important.
negotiating stages: bargaining
success at this stage depends mightily on how well the previous two stages have proceeded. The goal is for each party to walk away feeling like it has gained something of value (regardless of the actual bargaining strategy). During this stage, both parties likely must make concessions and give up something to get something in return.
negotiating stages: closing and commitment
this stage entails the process of formalizing an agreement reached during the previous stage.
what are the two important negotiator biases?
Relationship between the parties and the negotiator emotions
Why are some leaders more powerful than others?
Leaders acquire both organizational and personal forms of power, which gives them the ability to influence others. They can then use that power to influence others through influence tactics. Those tactics can help achieve organizational goals or may be applied more specifically to dealing with organizational politics, conflict resolution, or negotiation situations.
In the end, there are three possible responses to influence attempts:
How important are power and influence?
Power and influence are moderately correlated with job performance
Effective power and influence techniques can increase the motivation levels in employees, whereas the ineffective use of power and influence can increase the stress levels of employees.
Power and influence are moderately correlated with organizational commitment. The effective use of power should increase job satisfaction and a sense of trust in the leader, all of which are associated with increase commitment levels.
It's important to note that an ineffective use of power can also decrease commitment levels.
alternative dispute resolution
a process by which two parties resolve conflicts through the use of a specially trained, neutral third party.
requires a third party to facilitate the dispute resolution process, though this third party has no formal authority to dictate a solution.
occurs when a third party determines a binding settlement to a dispute. He can be an individual or a group (board) whose job is to listen to the various arguments and them make a decision about the solution to the conflict.
Add the apostrophe alone to form the possessive of the plural nouns ending in an s or a z sound
In the popular book, Eat, Pray, Love, the author Elizabeth Gilbert explores three countries in terms of their cuisine and religious and sacred rituals. Gilbert uses the book to connect food to which type of need?
Define a register. Explain its importance in education.
Identify the elements of persuasive speaking on questions of fact, value, and policy. Be prepared to create specific purpose statements on each of them
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