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Chapter 12 - Problem Solving
Terms in this set (55)
..., a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics
Participants in psychological experiments tend to focus on surface features in analogy problems, whereas people in the real world frequently use deeper, more structural features
comparison (for inducing structure problems)
...finding a pattern among a fixed set of relations (Some objects given); Figure out how objects relatextended comparisons of the outputs of the different models;
..., a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one
..., Presenting a sample design influences the creation of new designs.
..., thinking that moves away in diverging directions so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to novel ideas and solutions
evaluation (for inducing structure problems)
...finding a pattern among a fixed set of relations (Some objects given); evaluation of the influence that the selection of a particular model has on the assessment of structures
..., the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
..., In problem solving, the condition at the end of a problem.
..., a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
knowledge lean problems (no specialized knowledge)
..., Problems that can be solves without the use of much prior knowledge, with most of the necessary information being provided by the problem statement.
knowledge rich problems (specialized knowledge)
..., Problems that can only be solved through the use of considerable amounts of prior knowledge.
..., Problems in which the definition of the problem statement is imprecisely specified; the initial state, goal state, and methods to be used to solve the problem may be unclear
..., In problem solving, the conditions at the beginning of a problem.
...A mapping is the systematic set of correspondences that exist between constituent elements of the source and the target domain. Many elements of target concepts come from source domains and are not preexisting. To know a conceptual metaphor is to know the set of mappings that applies to a given source-target pairing. The same idea of mapping between source and target is used to describe analogical reasoning and inferences.
...mental set, functional fixedness, confirmation bias, not weighing consequences, availability
the process of changing a problem's representation. according to the Gestalt psychologists, restructuring is the key mechanism of problem solving
set of givens
..., A problem or story that is analogous to the target problem and which therefore provides information that can lead to a solution to the target problem.
..., A problem to be solved. In analogical problem solving, solution of this problem can become easier when the problem solver is exposed to an analogous source problem or story.
transformational abilities (operators)
..., problems in which there is adequate information to solve the problem and clear criteria by which to determine whether the problem has been solved
Algorithmic problem solving
..., Comprehensive approach to analysis that examines every instance in logically patterned order
..., the application of problem-solving strategies experienced in solving one problem to the solution of another, similar problem
..., A comparison of two things based on their being alike in some way. (It can be a metaphor or a simile, but it usually takes longer to explain than just one sentence.)
..., require the problem solver to rearrange or recombine elements in a way that will satisfy a certain criterion(ex. jigsaw puzzle, scrabble, making words out of letters)
expertise (and problem solving)
..., -expertise usually helps ability to solve problems:more experience, better representation, more practice solving certain types of problems.
-can sometimes harm: functional fixedness, water jug mental set.
-rich organized schemas
-spend more time on representation (take longer to start solution, but less to complete it)
-less means end analysis (prestored solution in long term memory, fewer demand on working memory)
-move forward, not backward.
general problem solver
..., A computer program developed by Newell and Simon designed to mimic how humans solve a number of divers problems and logic puzzles., a computer simulation of problem solving that used means-end analysis; good at solving logic puzzles but bad at solving real world problems
gestalt problem solving
..., - Perceptual events perceived as a whole, not individual elements
- Think from different perspectives and the solution will come
- Problems exist when tension occurs as a result of interaction between perception & memory, For Gestalt psychologists, problem solving was largely a
matter of how the problem was
-Problem solving involves
reorganization or restructuring the
heuristic problem solving
..., using shortcuts/"rules of thumb"; strategy in which you ignore some alternatives and explore only those alternatives that seem especially likely to produce a solution.
..., selecting the alternative at each choice point that appears to lead most directly to one's goal
hobbit and orc problem
...Three hobbits and three orcs arrive at a riverbank, and they all want to cross to the other side. Fortunately, there is a boat available, but, unfortunately, it can carry only two creatures at a time. What really makes the situation complicated is that the orcs are vicious creatures. Whenever there are more orcs than hobbits on one side of the river, the orcs will immediately attack the hobbits and eat them up. Consequently, you should be certain that you never leave more orcs than hobbits on either riverbank. Although the orcs are vicious, they can be trusted to bring the boat back. Your challenge is to move all six creatures across the river without allowing the orcs to eat the hobbits.
inducing structure problems
..., A person must identify the existing relationships among the elements presented and then construct a new relationship among them. (patterns)
..., In problem solving, the various conditions that exist along the pathways between the initial and goal states.
..., a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
means-ends analysis heuristic
..., Most important heuristic in Simon and Newell's model; noting difference between current state and goal state and creation of sub-goal; selection of operator to achieve sub-goal., break down problem into subgoals and work toward the main goal by achieving each subgoal
..., a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
symbols, matrices, diagrams, visual imagery, the first step in solving a problem; it involves interpreting or defining the problem
..., The set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver.
...a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol; a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this.
...In the means-end analysis approach to problem solving, intermediate states that move the process of solution closer to the goal
structural/deep features (analogies)
...the underlying principle of a problem. For example, in the radiation problem, needing high intensity to fix something surrounded by material that could be damaged by high intensity. Contrast with surface features.
surface features (analogies)
...specific elements that make up a problem. For example, in the radiation problem, the rays and the tumor are surface features. contrast with structural/deep features.
..., which consist of an initial state, goal state and a method for changing the initial state into the goal state(ex. having 2 rows of pennies, and moving 2 pennies to make 6)
Acrobat problem (Kotovsky Hayes and Simon, 1985)
Checkerboard and dominoes (Kaplan and Simon, 1990)
Candle problem (Duncker 1945; Adamson, 1952)
Chess with experts and novices (Chase and Simon, 1973)
Fortress problem (Gick and Holyoak, 1980)
Incubation and problem solving (Silveira, 1971)
Insight with anagrams and math problems (Metcalfe. 1986b)
Matchstick problem solving (Katona, 1940)
Mental sets (Luchins, 1942)
Monk hill climbing problem (Koestler, 1964)
Two string problem (Maier, 1931)
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