The Digestive System and Body Metabolism Chapter 14
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th (tenth) edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 14
Terms in this set (35)
a substance in food that is used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
these make up the bulk of what we eat
Vitamins and minerals -required in minute amounts.
sugars and starches -derived from plants.
Mostly triglycerides (neutral fats) , Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
molecules that are basically amino acid polymers. Eggs, milk, fish and most meat proteins are "complete proteins". Where as legumes are "incomplete proteins"
Essential Amino Acids
8 amino acids that our body cannot make. Must be taken in during diet.
organic nutrients of various forms that the body requires in small amounts. A balanced diet is the best way to ensure a full vitamin complement.
Most vitamins function as these -they act with an enzyme to accomplish a particular type of catalysis.
is a broad term referring to all chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life.
in which substances are broken down to simpler substances
in which larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones.
"bood sugar" is the major breakdown product of the carbohydrate digestion.
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
electron transport chain
a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
, excessive acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss of bicarbonate
Breath takes on a fruity smell due to acetone entering the lungs
a soluble nitrogenous waste produced in the liver by a metabolic cycle that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide.
glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
the conversion of glucose to glycogen when the glucose in the blood exceeds the demand
breakdown of glycogen to glucose
The formation of glycogen, a glucose storing compound, from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates.
not an energy fuel. 85% of it is made by our own liver.
Serves the structural basis of steroid hormones and Vitamin D, and is a major building block of plasma membranes.
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
transport cholesterol and other lipids to body cells, where they are used various ways. (if large amount in blood, it can be deposited on the arterial walls)
high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
lipoproteins that transport cholesterol from the tissue cells (or arteries) to the liver for disposal in bile.
the energy that is liberated during food oxidation.
=total energy output which is (heat+work+energy storage)
includes energy we immediately lose as heat, plus that used to do work, plus energy that is stored in the form of fat or glycogen.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
is the amount of heat produced by the body per unit of time when it is under basal conditions -at rest.
produced by the thyroid gland and is probably the most important factor determining a person's BMR; hence it has been dubbed the "metabolic hormone"
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
excess thyroxine production (Grave's disease), caused by autoimmune disorder. Symptoms; enlarged thyroid, muscle weakness, increased metabolic rate, sweating etc.. Treatment; remove thyroid, drugs & radioactive iodine.
Total Metabolic Rate (TMR)
refers to the total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activity that increase this.