5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- active transport
- Good whole food vitamin
- administration of drugs
- parenteral administration (a. IV, b. subcutaneous, c. intramuscular, d. intraarterial, e. intrathecal)
- a New process
- b a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
- c the prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins
- d administration routes of drugs play large role in drug absorption, 2 major mehtods: a) enteral means thru gastroint tract. b)parenteral: entrance outside of GI tract, usually via injection.
- e atp required. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
5 Multiple choice questions
- determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
- 2/3 in intracellular compartment and 1/3 in extracellular compartment (between cells). Drugs can distrib into any of these compartments dep on size and hydrophobicity of drug. (V(d)=Total amt of drug in body/plasma concentration of drug-->Know: small V(d) indicates drug is primarily sequestered in plasma, a Large V(d) indicates that relatively little of the drug stays in plasma (if mroe than one, more disrib in body and less in bloodstream if less than one, less in body and more in bloodstream, if 1-equal)
- minimum trough concentration
- looks at how drugs act in the body and deals with [At the site of action, what the drug does] mechanisms of action in addition to the actions of different drug concentrations or doses
- time for drug concentration to fall by half
5 True/False questions
Enteral administration. a. enteric coated pills, b.controlled release pills → a)enteric coated allows drug to pass thru stomach without being destroyed by gastric acid. b)controlled release preparation allows drug to release a uniform stream to absorption site over relatively long period of time (disadvantages of this include differences between patients, failure of controlled release causing dose dumping or reduced drug release)other forms of enteral administration
Factors that affect bioavailability → a. first pass hepatic metabolism: first pass metabolism refers to drugs entering hepatic portal system from intestines, b. drug solubility: very hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs have difficulty crossing cell membranes and entering most drugs prefer to be hydrophobic and a little hydrophilic so they can pass cell membranes easily., c. chemical instability: some drugs may be affected by stomach's pH or various degradative enzymes in GI tract., d. chemicophysical properties of the drug(suzem salt form)
ADME scheme → area under the curve: overall exposure to drug over time.
Cmax → minimum trough concentration
cons of oral/enteral administration → reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues