5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- sublingual and rectal administration
- facilitated diffusion
- t 1/2
- active transport
- a (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)
- b area under the curve: overall exposure to drug over time.
- c no atp. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
- d time for drug concentration to fall by half
- e atp required. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
5 Multiple choice questions
- can easily get out of blood stream
- looks at how drugs act in the body and deals with [At the site of action, what the drug does] mechanisms of action in addition to the actions of different drug concentrations or doses
- a. first pass hepatic metabolism: first pass metabolism refers to drugs entering hepatic portal system from intestines, b. drug solubility: very hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs have difficulty crossing cell membranes and entering most drugs prefer to be hydrophobic and a little hydrophilic so they can pass cell membranes easily., c. chemical instability: some drugs may be affected by stomach's pH or various degradative enzymes in GI tract., d. chemicophysical properties of the drug(suzem salt form)
- reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues
- clas I: drugs where the dose is less than albumin's capacity to bind (when administered, there will be excess albumin for further binding). class II:given in doses much greater than albumin's ability to bind to it (means there is much more of the drug left over, causing lots of the drug to be free and not to be bound to albumin). if you combine a class I with a class II, free drugs levels of Class I will be much higher, potentially dangerous and may cause overdose situation. Free drugs are active, bound drugs are inert)
5 True/False questions
Enteral administration. a. enteric coated pills, b.controlled release pills → a)enteric coated allows drug to pass thru stomach without being destroyed by gastric acid. b)controlled release preparation allows drug to release a uniform stream to absorption site over relatively long period of time (disadvantages of this include differences between patients, failure of controlled release causing dose dumping or reduced drug release)other forms of enteral administration
administration of drugs → determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
distribution. → rate and extent that the drugs leaves site of administration. a)how long it takes for an oral drug to enter bloodstream from small intestine and how much of the drug makes it. b. bioavailability: [how much of a drug makes it into the bloodstream] what fraction of the dose of a drug reaches its site of actino or a body fluid where the drug has accss to its action.
charge of drug → absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
C min → maximum concentration: