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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. sublingual and rectal administration
  2. cons of oral/enteral administration
  3. passive diffusion
  4. charge of drug
  5. pharmacodynamics
  1. a determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
  2. b reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues
  3. c physiochemical makeup helps determine how easy or difficult drug passes thru membranes (concentration gradient, how lipophilic and surface area of cell)
  4. d looks at how drugs act in the body and deals with [At the site of action, what the drug does] mechanisms of action in addition to the actions of different drug concentrations or doses
  5. e (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. a. first pass hepatic metabolism: first pass metabolism refers to drugs entering hepatic portal system from intestines, b. drug solubility: very hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs have difficulty crossing cell membranes and entering most drugs prefer to be hydrophobic and a little hydrophilic so they can pass cell membranes easily., c. chemical instability: some drugs may be affected by stomach's pH or various degradative enzymes in GI tract., d. chemicophysical properties of the drug(suzem salt form)
  2. can easily get out of blood stream
  3. a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
  4. no atp. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
  5. describes action of drugs wihtin body and absorption, [How drugs move in body and how quickly] distrib, metabolism and elimination of drugs in addition to the rate or kinetics at which drug's actions begin and their duration. "ADD ME" (sp?) scheme

5 True/False questions

  1. Enteral administration. a. enteric coated pills, b.controlled release pillsa. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.

          

  2. Volume of distributionthe prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins

          

  3. protein bindingmost drugs reversibly bind to plasma proteins. drugs bound to albumin is going to be inactive. albumin is the most common protein in the plasma, albumin keeps blood within the blood vessels. As plasma concentration of the drug increases, more binding occurs.

          

  4. absorptionthe prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins

          

  5. Cmaxmaximum concentration: