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In 1957, the effort to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, required

the presence of federal troops to enforce court orders

Between 1945 and 1960, the birth rate in the United States

reversed a long pattern of decline

During the 1950s in the United States, married women who worked outside the home

decreased in number throughout the decade

The Eisenhower administration responded to Fidel Castro's coming to power in Cuba by

ending diplomatic relations

With highways, travel by automobile, truck, and bus was as fast or faster than by trains and contributed to the decline of


In 1954, the United States Senate voted to

censure Joseph McCarthy for "conduct unbecoming a senator."

Until the early 1950s, the country the United States assisted in trying to control Vietnam was


The first American to be launched into space, in 1961, was

Alan Shepard.

Between 1945-1959, U.S. policy in the Middle East saw

the CIA engineer a coup that brought the shah of Iran to power

In 1954, the Eisenhower administration ordered the CIA to help overthrow the government of


Martin Luther King Jr. was leader of the

Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

During the 1950s, the popularity in the United States of suburban living was partly explained by

All these answers are correct.

In 1954, the American scientist Jonas Salk developed a vaccine for the prevention of


During the 1950s, the U.S. government's primary motive for the development of rocket and missile technology was

the long-range delivery of weapons

The primary goal of the American Apollo program was to

land men on the moon.

Under John Foster Dulles's policy of "massive retaliation," announced in 1954, the United States would

use nuclear weapons against communist aggression

The Soviet Union's announcement in 1960 that it had shot down an American U-2 spy plane

led Soviet Premier Khrushchev to withdraw his invitation to Eisenhower to visit Moscow.

Like many early white rock musicians, Elvis Presley drew heavily from black traditions in

rhythm and blues

The rapid rise in the popularity of rock music was partly due to

All these answers are correct

The Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

declared that separate educational facilities were unlawful

Following World War II, the American economy

grew, between 1945 and 1975, nearly ten times faster than the population.

The popular "beat" novel On the Road (1957) was written by

Jack Kerouac

The Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-1956

marked the emergence of an effective form of racial protest

In the civil rights movement, the spirit of "massive resistance" is associated with

southern whites

During the 1950s, the American Federation of Labor in the United States

merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations

In 1968, antiwar protesters at the Democratic convention in Chicago

were attacked by police in a bloody riot

Which of the following individuals was NOT at one point a candidate in the 1968 Democratic primaries?

George McGovern

In the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, the

United States ordered a naval and air blockade of Cuba

In 1967, President Lyndon Johnson responded to mounting inflation at home by

agreeing to large funding reductions in Great Society programs

In the 1960s, the philosophy of "black power"

called for an increased awareness of racial differences.

The overthrow of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963

was supported by the Kennedy administration

Martin Luther King's "I have a dream" speech

was given during the largest civil rights demonstration in the nation's history to that point.

Great Society reforms

contributed to the greatest reduction in poverty in American history

The Immigration Act of 1965

eliminated rules that gave preference to immigrants from northern Europe

The Civil Rights Act of 1965 primarily focused on the issue of

voting rights.

In 1956, scheduled national elections for Vietnam were cancelled because

the pro-Western government in South Vietnam refused to hold them

In the Vietnam War, the "Ho Chi Minh Trail" was

continually moved by the North Vietnamese

In 1961, the "freedom rides" sponsored by CORE attempted to

force the desegregation of bus stations

During the Bay of Pigs operation, President John Kennedy decided to withhold

military air support.

The 1968 Tet offensive

All these answers are correct.

All of the following statements regarding the 1968 Tet offensive are true EXCEPT that it

led to the fall of Saigon to the communists

One of the chief obstacles in John Kennedy's presidential bid in 1960 was his


Only weeks after taking office, President Lyndon Johnson declared a "war" on


Under the terms of the Geneva Conference accords, Vietnam was

to hold elections in 1956.

The Warren Commission investigation of the assassination of President John Kennedy concluded

Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone assassin of Kennedy

In Vietnam, the American military "attrition" strategy

None of these answers is correct

Robert Kennedy's assassin had apparently been angered by Kennedy's

statements in favor of Israel

The correct chronological order of the following events is

Bay of Pigs, Vienna summit, Berlin Wall, Cuban missile crisis

The 1965 civil rights march in Selma, Alabama, involved all of the following EXCEPT the

resignation of Governor George Wallace

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

gave President Lyndon Johnson wide latitude to escalate the conflict

In the 1960s and 1970s, the agenda of the political left included

All these answers are correct

In 1972, two Washington Post reporters uncovered evidence linking the Watergate break-in to

All these answers are correct

In the late 1960s and early 1970s all of the following occurred due to American Indian activism, EXCEPT

Congress granting to reservations "independent nation" status within the United States.

As president, Jimmy Carter called for a foreign policy that stressed the importance of

human rights.

Stagflation" refers to

rising prices and a weak economy

The weakening of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s was encouraged by the Soviet policy of

glasnost and perestroika

The so-called Pentagon Papers

revealed the government had misled the public regarding the progress of the war.

In 1979, the United States responded to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan by

imposing economic sanctions on the Soviet Union

In April 1970, the antiwar movement was recharged by

the U.S. invasion of Cambodia

During the 1980s, the American economy benefited from

All these answers are correct

The Environmental Protection Agency was created in ________ when ________ signed the National Environmental Protection Act into law.

1970; Richard Nixon

The 1969 "Stonewall Riot" is associated with the civil rights movement for


Proposition 13 in California, in 1978, dealt with

property taxes

In the 1980s, record national budget deficits resulted from

All these answers are correct

In 1973, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

All these answers are correct.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

was amended for the benefit of women

In 1972, the Watergate scandal began with a break-in at the

offices of the Democratic National Committee

Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring helped launch the modern environmental movement by focusing on problems concerning


In the late 1970s, members of the so-called Sagebrush Rebellion

portrayed the West as a victim of government control.

President Richard Nixon's visit to China in 1972

came after Taiwan was expelled from the United Nations

As part of his domestic agenda, President Richard Nixon

All these answers are correct

In 1972, the Equal Rights Amendment

All these answers are correct

In Engel v. Vitale (1962), the Supreme Court

ruled prayers in public schools were unconstitutional.

In the late 1970s, the "Christian right

were alarmed by many Supreme Court rulings

In 1971, President Richard Nixon believed an American withdrawal from Vietnam would

harm his own credibility of and that of the nation

In 1973, American Indian activists occupied the old Indian battle site of

Wounded Knee.

President Richard Nixon believed U.S. foreign policy should work toward

a balance of power among several major nations.

The killing of South Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers in the village of My Lai

None of these answers is correct

The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade (1973)

was based on a new legal interpretation of privacy rights

In 1980, the "Sunbelt" region of the nation

All these answers are correct

Students for a Democratic Society was formed

primarily by college students from prestigious universities

Betty Friedan's 1963 book, The Feminine Mystique,

gave a voice to a reemerging women's rights movement

The country President Ronald Reagan described as an "evil empire" in the early 1980s was

the Soviet Union

The Reagan Doctrine of opposing communism

led the United States to intervene in several Latin American nations

In 1972, the United States' "Christmas bombing" of North Vietnam

saw the United States suffer, by far, its greatest loss of bombers in the war

In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court

required authorities to inform a criminal suspect of his or her legal rights

In Bakke v. Board of Regents of California (1978), the Supreme Court

upheld the principle of affirmative action, with restrictions

The intent of President Richard Nixon's "Vietnamization" policy was to

have the South Vietnamese military do more of the fighting.

In 1986, the Reagan administration suffered a serious political scandal after the White House admitted it had

All these answers are correct

In 1972, the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty

froze the arsenals of some nuclear missiles at their current levels.

By 1973, there was mounting evidence that President Richard Nixon had

been part of the cover-up of the break-in

As president, Jimmy Carter gave much of his attention to

energy and the economy

The crisis of American hostages being held in Iran

lasted over one year.

"Earth Day" in 1970 was

an example of the popularization of environmentalism

Founded in 1968, the American Indian Movement (AIM

focused on militant action

Sandra Day O'Connor, the first female Supreme Court justice, was named to the court by

Ronald Reagan.

In 1983, the Reagan administration responded to a terrorist bombing of American military barracks in Beirut by

withdrawing the remaining Marines

All of the following foreign policy events occurred during the Carter administration EXCEPT the

ratification of a new SALT II arms agreement with the Soviet Union

In the late 1980s, challenges to communist rule were LEAST successful in


According to policies that came to be called the Nixon Doctrine, the United States would

assist in the development of friendly nations

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