Social Psychology Ch 12
Terms in this set (31)
A motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests...helping with no expectations of rewards; including internal and external.
Describe how the social-exchange theory motivates helping.
This theory assumes that helping, like other social behaviors, is motivated by a desire to maximize rewards, which may be internal or external.
What type of helping relates most to the Social Exchange theory?
People are more willing to help after wrongdoing; Sad people tend to be helpful. Happy people also tend to be helpful.
What type of helping relates most to Social Norms?
Women in crisis; partly because they may be seen as more needy.
Describe how the theories related to social norms motivate helping.
This theory relates to the idea that we feel 'beckoned' to help needy people, as long as they are deserving, even if they can't reciprocate (Social Responsibility Norm). We are also stimulated to help those who have helped us (Reciprocity Norms).
Describe the difference between egoistic and altruistic helping. What is evidence that each exists? When does one happen, versus the other?
(Egotistic): Helping those in distress to reduce our own distress.
(Altruistic): Our sympathy results in our helping to reduce another's distress.
Describe the reciprocity norm, and describe the social responsibility norm. How are they similar? How do they differ? How do these norms tie in with attributions about the cause of the problem?
(Reciprocity Norm): We are stimulated to help those who have helped us. There is also an expectation that a person who helps won't be harmed.
(Social Responsibility Norm): We feel the need to help those who are deserving, regardless of their ability to reciprocate.
In both cases these norms are applicable to other cultures. Also, both theorize that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs.
What are gender differences in help-seeking and in helpfulness?
Helpfulness: The gender difference depends on the situation
Women offer help equally to males and females.
Men offer more help when the persons in need are women or when the situation is dangerous
Women in crisis receive more offers of help than men, especially from men.
Describe how evolutionary psychology accounts for helping.
The genes of the selfish are more likely to survive. Therefore selfishness is our natural tendency and society must therefore teach helping
Describe the philosophical issue underlying the story of Abe Lincoln and the piglets.
Did he save the piglets from selfishness or empathy? He says it was selfishness, so he'd have peace of mind; but if he wasn't empathetic he wouldn't have had a second thought about how they, or the sow, felt.
Describe egoistic and altruistic routes to helping.
Egotistic: We feel distress in response to another's distress. We help to alleviate that distress.
Altruistic: We feel sympathy towards the other person. We help to alleviate that person's distress.
What are benefits and problems associated with empathy-induced altruism?
produces sensitive helping
improves attitudes towards stigmatized groups
It can be harmful - people who risk their lives on behalf of others can lose them.
It can't address all needs - we can't fix everything
It burns out - compassion fatigue
It can feed favoritism, injustice, and indifference to the larger, common good - we can narrow our focus to those closest to us.
Fill in the components of Latané and Darley's decision tree.
Only one path up the tree leads to helping. At each fork of the path the presence of other bystanders may divert a person down a branch toward not helping.
Did the person NOTICE the incident?
Did the person INTERPRET the incident as an emergency?
Did the person ASSUME responsibility?
Did the person TRY TO HELP?
Relate the story of Catherine Genovese to subsequent helping research
Bystander effect: We are less likely to help when other's are around.
Modeling: Is anyone else helping?
Time pressures: Do I have time to help?
Similarity? Is this person like me? - Could also speak to empathy/sympathy
Explain how and why helping is influenced by the number of and actions of other bystanders
We are more likely to help when we are alone. If others are present and also helping we are more likely to help.
Explain how and why helping is influenced by modeling.
We are more apt to help when we see someone else help...if we pass someone helping another with a flat tire we're more likely to stop and help when we see someone else with a flat tire.
Explain how and why helping is influenced by perceived similarity
We tend to help those we see as being similar to ourselves
Explain how and why helping is influenced by time pressures.
Those in a hurry are less likely to help. We simply don't take the time to tune in to a person in need.
Explain how and why helping is influenced by mood states.
If you feel good you are more likely to do good as a positive mood can dramatically boost helping.
If you're angry or grieving you'll be less apt to help. You can't pay attention to others when you're lost in your own emotions.
Explain how and why helping is influenced by personal traits and values.
Those high in positive emotionality, empathy and self-efficacy are most likely to be concerned and helpful.
Attitude and trait measures predict average behaviors across many situations.
Identify the relationship of religious faith to helping
Those committed to their religion are more apt to help.
How might helping be increased by reversing the factors that inhibit helping.
If you can reverse factors that inhibit helping you'll be able to increase helping. This can include:
Enable guilt - door in the face
Enable concern for self-image
How might helping be increased by teaching norms of helping?
Evolutionary psychologists suggest that humans are prone to selfishness as that leads to survival. By teaching norms relating to helping we help to override that tenancy. Children who view helpful behavior tend to act helpfully.
How might helping be increased by socializing people to see themselves as helpful actors.
We can socialize altruism by:
teaching moral inclusion -
learning by doing
attribute helping behavior to altruism
learning about altruism
What are the two types of helping identified by evolutionary psychologists?
Devotion to Kin
According to Evolutionary psychologists which type of person is most likely to survive; selfish or self-sacrificing?
The genes of the selfish are more likely to survive. Therefore selfishness is our natural tendency and society must therefore teach helping.
Why do we help people?
When do we help?
When we are alone
If we interpret a situation as an emergency
If we assume responsibility
If we have time
If it will make us feel good about ourselves
If we see the person needing help as similar to ourselves
Who is more likely to help?
Committed religious members
How can we increase helping?
stating one's name
anticipating their reaction
What is the Overjustification Effect?
The effect of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.