137 terms

Criminal Justice Final

What common-law practice allowed judges to suspend punishment so that convicted offenders could seek a pardon, gather new evidence, or demonstrate that they had reformed their behavior?
Judicial Reprieve
Probation sentence involve;
A contract between the court and the offender in which a prison or jail term is suspended and the probationer promises to obey a set of probation rules, or conditions mandate by the court
What modern concept is attributed to the 19th century volunteer work of John Augustus?
For misdemeanors, probation usually extends for the entire period of a would-be jail sentence, whereas felonies are more likely to warrant probationary periods that are ________________ the suspended prison sentence.
What entity initially sets down the conditions or rules of behavior that must be followed by the probationer?
The court
Which state was the first to authorize the appointment of a paid probation officer?
____ refers to the process in which a probation officer settles cases at the initial appearance before the onset of formal criminal proceedings
The ____ is conducted primarily to gain information for judicial sentences.
Pre-sentence investigation
What happen when probation is revoked?
You are sent to jail to serve the remainder of your sentence behind bars
Which duty involves evaluating the probationer based on information from the initial intake or presentence investigation?
Which of the following is not a landmark Supreme Court case that deals with the legal rights of probationers?
Morrisey v. Brewer
In ____, the Court ruled that the probation officer/client relationship is not confidential.
Minnesota v. Murphy
In ____, the Supreme Court held that a probationer's home may be searched without a warrant on the grounds that probation departments "must respond quickly to evidence of misconduct. "
Griffin v. Wisconsin
This therapy assumes that most people can become conscious of their own thoughts and behaviors and then make positive changes.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy?
National data indicate that approximately ____ percent of probationers successfully complete their probationary sentence
Which of the following individuals is most likely to succeed on probation?
Probationers who are married with children, have lived in the area for two or more years, and are adequately employed are the most likely to be successful
Many scholars argue that probation will continue to be the sentence of choice in both felony and misdemeanor cases because it:
Controls for recidivism better than other intermediate sanctions
Which of the following is not a form of intermediate sanction?
- intensive probation
-super vision
-house arrest
- residential community
-split sentence

- Punishments that fall between probation and prision
What is the least punitive alternative on the punishment ladder?
Fine, restorative,

far from death sentence
What is the most punitive alternative on the punishment ladder?
Death penalty
What type of fine is geared to the offender's net daily income?
Day fines
What did the Court rule in Tate v. Short?
Forcing prison time on those unable to pay fines is unconstitutional
Which of the following is considered to be a federal forfeiture program?
The RICO act
What is the term associated with the strict interpretation of forfeiture statutes that produces property confiscations for even minor drug violations?
Zero Tolerance
Community service is an example of what?
Resentencing an offender t probation after a short prison stay is termed:
shock probation
Which intermediate sanction makes a jail term a condition of probation?
Split sentencing
Which of the following is the primary goal of Intensive Probation Services (IPS)?
According to the basic principles of restorative justice, the first priority of the justice process is to:
restoring the damage caused by crime and creating a system of justice that includes all the parties harmed by the criminal act: the victim the offender, community and society
John Braithwaite argues that crime control can be better achieved through a policy of:
Reintegrative shaming
When did the concept of incarcerating convicted offenders as a form of punishment become the norm for corrections?
The 19th century
Where were the English forced to house large numbers of prisoners in the late eighteenth century?
prison hulks
The "modern" American correctional system had its origin in what state?
What group formed the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons?
A group of Quakers led by Benjamin Rush
The Pennsylvania system in corrections, was the first to take the radical step of what?:
Establishing a prison that placed each inmate in a single cell for the duration of his sentence
Which prison system was known as the congregate system?
The Auburn
What was the key to discipline in the Auburn system?
Silent confinement
What is the name for the system that allowed prison officials to sell the labor of inmates to private businesses?
Contract system
The "modern" American correctional concept has its origin under the leadership of?
The major similarity between the Pennsylvania and the Auburn system was?
Discipline: silence and harsh punishment
Which of the following is not one of the five primary purposes for jails?
Holding excessive medical patients when mental hospitals are full
Which of the following statements is false regarding the population of jail inmates according to the text?
An important trend in prisons of the twentieth century was the
Almost ________jail inmates are adult males.
Which of the following is false regarding new-generation jails?
What type of jail has the correctional officer's station located inside a secure room?
Which of the following statements best describes correctional technology?
Joliet and the "The Rock" were examples of what type of prison?
Maximum Security Prison
The primary purpose of a maximum-security prison is:
Designed to eliminate hidden corners where people can congratgate and passages are constructed so that they can be easily blocked off to quell distubances
Prison farms and camps are found primarily in what section of the country?
South and West
Shock incarceration programs generally last how long?
90-180 days
Shock incarceration is generally designed with what target population in mind?
Youth, first time offenders
The U.S. Correctional Corporation opened its first private prison in what state?
Private prisons have the unique advantage of ?
Lower costs?
One day in prison costs more than ____ day(s) on parole
10 days
Approximately ____ percent of the young male African American population without a high school diploma or GED are currently behind bars
The inmate population in the US has __________ despite a decade long crime drop.
remained stable
The majority of inmates the U.S are _____?
Youth male, minority and poor?
Which of the following is a factor that helps contribute to swelling prison populations?
Which of the following is true regarding future prison trends?
The fact that prisons have inmates locked within their walls, are under constant scrutiny, and are forced to obey rules refers to the concept of:
total institution
What is the most typical emotion felt by most inmates during the early part of their prison stay?
What factor is said to have precipitated the "new" inmate culture?
Importation of outside values into the inmate culture
In the "new" inmate culture;
African American and Latino are much more cohesively organizes than whites
What was the predominant societal view of female inmates at the turn of the 20th century?
Morally depraved people who flouted conventional rules of female behavior
Which model allows private companies to set up manufacturing units on prison grounds or purchase goods made by inmates in shops owned and operated by the corrections department?
Prison Farms and Camps
What is the most common outcome for children when a single mother is sent to prison?
Father/grandparent, family friend or foster car(10%)
Research has shown that inmates involved in this type of correctional treatment do better following release than those in comparison groups.
Faith based programs
Which of the following is not true about the sexual exploitation of female inmates?
- females get sexually abused by male correctional workers
The desire for warm stable relationships that are otherwise unobtainable in the prison environment often leads the female inmate to:
Make believe family
What is one commonly used method for treating drug-dependant inmates in today's prisons
-12 step groups(Narcotics or Alcoholics Anonymous)
-(Cognitive Behavioral) Counseling
-Therapeutic Communities
What type of treatment program has flourished under the Bush administration?
Faith based rehabilitation
The first prison treatment programs in the United States were
Educational, prison schools
What is the best estimate of the rate of HIV infection among state and federal prison inmates?
2% : 25,000 inmates
Which of the following is NOT a common form of inmate vocational program in use today?
-Vocational Training
-Work Release
-Private Prison Enterprise
-Post-release Programs
In adapting to a female institution a common practice is;
Self-mutilation or carving
Which of the following is not a factor contributing to individual violence in prison?
- History of prior violence
- Age
- Psychological factors
- Prison conditions
- Lack of dispute resolution mechanisms
- Basic survival
Which theory of collective inmate violence attributes the problem to abrupt crackdowns or changes in inmate freedoms that are implemented by prison administrators?
Inmate-balance theory
The "hands-off doctrine" refers to:
8t amendment
- Legal practice of allowing prison administrators a free hand to run the institution even if correctional practices violate inmates constitutional rights
According to the ____ theory, collective violence may also be caused by prison mismanagement, lack of strong security, and inadequate control of prison officials.
Administrative-Control Theory
What was the most widely used device or legislation to bring prisoners' complaints before state and federal courts in the late 1960s?
Civil Rights Act, 42 U.S.C. 1983
Courts have ruled that inmates are entitled to have legal materials and resources available to assist them in filing complaints, this includes?
Which case forced corrections department to upgrade prison medical facilities?
Newman v. Alabama
Withholding medical treatment is a violation of the ____ Constitutional Amendment
In recent years, the view of correctional officers has changed to;
Which of the following statements is false about the effectiveness of parole?
- Many return to prison
- Remain uneducated and unskilled
- Do not have a solid family support
Which of the following factors has been linked to recidivism?
all of the above
Which of the following is a NOT a right that is lost by convicted felons?
-Press and Expression
-Access to courts, legal services, and materials
-Cruel and unusual punishment
- Racial Segregation
In which 1994 case did the court rule that prison officials are legally liable if, knowing that an inmate faces a serious risk of harm, they disregard that risk by failing to take measures to avoid or reduce it?
Farmer v. Brennan
Which of the following is not believed to be a reason that people fail on parole?
- Economic Problems
- Community Problems
- Family Problems
- Legal Problems
The juvenile justice system developed as a result of?
Poor laws ad chancery courts
The modern practice of legally separating adult criminals and juvenile offenders can be traced back to two developments in English custom and law that occurred centuries ago, one of which is/are
- Development of Elizabethan era poor laws
- Creation of the English chancery courts
When did the House of Refuge in New York first open?
Which 19th century program was similar to a modern foster home?
Children's Aid Society
In its early form, what was the burden of proof for verdicts handed down by the juvenile court?
Verdicts based on "preponderance of the evidence"
Modern development of legally separating adult and juvenile offenders can be traced to two developments in English custom law, one is?
Poor laws and Chancery courts
The approach of the early American juvenile court is best described as:
"best interest for the child"
court was paternalistic
What impact did the Supreme Court have on the juvenile justice system in the 1960s and 1970s?
Due process of law
Juveniles had the same rights as adults in important areas of trial process including:
- the right to confront a witness
-notice of charges
-right to counsel`
The juvenile court labels ungovernable, habitually disobedient, and truant children to be:
Status offenders
Which of the following is a difference between juvenile and adult justice systems?
Adult has a stronger rehab program
About how many juvenile cases are processed and treated each year?
1.6 million
Which type of case is most likely to be referred to the juvenile court by the police officer
Case involving violence
What is considered to be the most difficult problem involving incriminatory statements made by juveniles during the course of police questioning?
What term refers to the screening of cases by the juvenile justice system
What is the most common formal sentence for juveniles?
release to parental custody
An adjustment for a juvenile is comparable to a(n) ____ for an adult
plea bargain
Once a juvenile has been taken into custody, the child has the same ____ Amendment rights to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures as an adult does.
Which of the following best explains the recent surge in the number of juvenile detentions?
all the above, juveniles
A __________ is used when the offense has been automatically waived to the adult court but the judge uses their discretion to decide the youth will benefit from rehabilitation?
In which case did the Court hold that the waiver proceeding is a critically important stage in the juvenile justice process and that juveniles must be afforded minimum requirements of due process of law at such proceedings?
Kent v. United States
Which judicial hearing in the juvenile court process is similar to arraignment in the adult system?
Initial Appearance
Under what system does the prosecutor have the discretion of filing charges for certain legislatively designated offenses in either juvenile or criminal court?
All States allow juveniles to be tried as adults in criminal court under certain circumstances. In many States, the legislature statutorily excludes certain (usually serious) offenses from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court regardless of the age of the accused. In some States and at the Federal level under certain circumstances, prosecutors have the discretion to either file criminal charges against juveniles directly in criminal courts or proceed through the juvenile justice process. The juvenile court's intake department or the prosecutor may petition the juvenile court to waive jurisdiction to criminal court. The juvenile court also may order referral to criminal court for trial as adults. In some jurisdictions, juveniles processed as adults may upon conviction be sentenced to either an adult or a juvenile facility.
What happens during the fact-finding hearing?
Evidence is heard
What was the legal standard for a warrantless search of a school locker in New Jersey v. TLO?
What is the most commonly used formal sentence for juvenile offenders?
Release to parental custody
Which of the following best describes a recent reform of juvenile sentencing?
A. Some jurisdictions have passed mandatory or determinate incarceration sentences for juveniles convicted of serious felonies.
B .Making a concerted effort to remove status offenders from the juvenile justice system and restrict their entry into institutional programs.
C. Effort to standardize dispositions in juvenile court.
D. All of these represent recent reforms related to juvenile sentencing

Deinstitutionalization efforts are principally focused on which type of offenses?
What stage in the juvenile justice process is designed to help youths make the transition from residential or institutional settings back into the community?
Most juvenile aftercare involves:
Bernard Madoff, Bear Stearn, and Lehman Brothers all have committed this type of crime
Corporate Enterprise Crime
One new crime trend facing the justice system is?
-corporate enterprise crime
-green crime
-cyber crime
-transnational organized crime
According to your text a _______ is an investment fraud that involves the payment of purported returns to existing investors from funds contributed by new investors
Ponzi Scheme
One major issue with the Subprime Mortgage Scandal was that;
they carry risk
mortgage companies experienced financial distress and bankruptcy??
Subprime lenders made risky loans;
assuming that real estate values would always be increasing, allowing borrowers to refinance or sell their properties before going into default
The detection and enforcement of large scale corporate crime is primarily in the hands of?
Special task forces and prosecution teams are made by the sates
_______are violations of existing criminal laws designed to protect people, the environment or both
Green Crime
Worldwide, estimates for illegal logging activities account for products worth at least ______ per year?
15 billion
Illegal fishing is criminalized because fishermen are
Fishing in other country's waters; causing endangerment because they are not being regulated
Enforcing environmental laws including the Clean Water Act of 1972 is done by?
The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Transnational Crime groups are often involved in;
-drug trafficking
-human trafficking and prostitution
-terror campaigns
-killing police officers
-white collar crimes
One reason it has proven difficult for law enforcement to combat drug cartels is
They use their firepower to intimidate police, judges and potential witnesses
Federal legislation that enables prosecutors to bring additional criminal or civil charges against people engaged in 2 or more acts prohibited by 24 existing federal and 8 state laws
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO)
Underground criminal societies based on Hong Kong control secret markets, bus routes, and are often involved in money laundering and drug trafficking
Which United Nations agency is charged with addressing labor standards, employment and social protection issues and often finds themselves dealing with human trafficking issues?
Southeast European Cooperative Initiative??
Afghanistan now supplies ___ of the world's opium leaving the potential for eradicating global crime difficult.
a significant percentage
Cyber crime is challenging because:
-Rapidly evolving with new schemes
-It is difficult to detect through traditional law enforcement channels
-To control it, agents of the justice system must develop technical skills
____ is the use of computer networks for undermining the social, economic, and political system of an enemy through the destruction of infrastructure.
Cyber crime