45 terms

Mesopotamia & Egypt

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Nile River
Major river that runs south to north through Egypt.
Mesopotamia
The area between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Now known as Iraq
City States
A city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state. City states were able to divide large areas into easily manageable self-governing states with one central city.
Cuneiform
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.
Delta
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake.
Euphrates
A river in southwestern Asia that flows through the southern part of the Fertile Crescent, a river running through Sumer, Mesopotamia, provided resources for the Mesopotamians.
Fertile Crescent
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
Hammurabi
Ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases.
Horus
God of the living pharaoh, the sky god.
Irrigation
Supplying land with water through a network of canals.
Lower Egypt
on a map of Ancient Egypt this would have been located in the north due to lower elevation.
Papyrus
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paper-like writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.
Pharaoh
A ruler of ancient Egypt
Pyramids
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
Re or Ra
The Egyptian Sun God
Scribes
In Egypt and Mesopotamia, people trained to write using the earliest forms of writing .
Tigris
The northern and easternmost river in Mesopotamia and Iraq.
Upper Egypt
On a map of Ancient Egypt this would have been located in the south due to higher elevation.
Ur
City state in Ancient Mesopotamia, the home of Abraham.
Ziggurats
temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped
Silt
A mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks in a river.
Sumer
The world's first civilization, founded in Mesopotamia, which existed for over 3,000 years.
Sargon
2340 B.C. leader of the Akkadians who overran the Sumerian city-state and set up the first empire
Old Kingdom
Period of Egyptian history from 2700 BC - 2200 BC. Pyramids of Giza were made, Capital=Memphis, Menes united upper and lower Egypt during this period.
Osiris
Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead
Mummies
the Egyptian method of preserving dead bodies by wrapping them in cloth
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)
Middle Kingdom
Middle dynastic period in Egypt from 2050 BC. - 1650 BC.: " Golden Age" A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes.
New Kingdom
(1550 BCE - 1100 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by strong pharaohs who conquered an empire that stretched from Nubia in the south, to the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia.
Hatshepsut
The first female pharaoh of Egypt; stepmother of Thutmose III.
Social Hierarchy
The division of society by rank or class.
Rosetta Stone
A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.
Akhenaten/Amenhotep
Ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with Aten, the sun god.
Mediterranean Sea
This body of Water separates Europe and Africa.
Dynasty
A series of rulers from the same family
Surplus
More of something than is needed. Egypt and Mesopotamia had a surplus of food due to the rivers in their civilizations.
Division of Labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers. In Egypt and Mesopotamia, a food surplus led to this.
Priests
People who performed religious ceremonies in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Canals
A human-made waterway that allowed for irrigation.
Nebuchadnezzar
A Babylonian king who conquered Jerusalem, (started the Babylonian Captivity) and built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Architecture
The science of planning and constructing buildings
Sphinx
A mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human.
Trade Routes
A path followed by traders, developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia
Hieroglyphics
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds.
Afterlife
the next life in which the Egyptians believed the dead would live again

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