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Ch. 6 and 7 Long Term Memory and Encoding
Terms in this set (118)
Different type of memory based on different mechanisms. We will do this by considering the results of (1) behavioral experiments, (2) neuropsychological studies of the effects of brain damage on memory, and (3) brain imaging experiments.
Interaction refers to the fact that the different types of memory can interact and share mechanisms.
Long-term memory (LTM)
is the system that is responsible for storing information for long periods of time. One way to describe LTM is as an "archive" of information about past events in our lives and knowledge we have learned.
recent memories tend to be more detailed; much of this detail, and often the specific memories themselves, fade with the passage of time and as other experiences accumulate.
Dynamic Aspects of LTM
how it interacts with working memory to create our ongoing experience.
Provides an archive that we can can refer to when we want to remember events from the past and a wealth of background information that we are constantly consulting as we use working memory to make contact with what is happening at a particular moment.
B. B. Murdoch, Jr. (1962) Serial Curve
studied the distinction between STM and LTM using the following method to measure a function called the serial position curve
The serial position curve in Figure 6.3 indicates that memory is better for words at the beginning of the list and at the end of the list than for words in the middle
A possible explanation of the primacy effect is that subjects had time to rehearse the words at the beginning of the sequence and transfer them to LTM.
The better memory for the stimuli presented at the end of a sequence is called the recency effect. The explanation for the recency effect is that the most recently presented words are still in STM and therefore are easy for subjects to remember.
Serial Position Experiments
Subject begins recall immediately after hearing the list of words= Primacy effect and recency effect.
List is presented and subject repeats words out loud in 5-second intervals between words. = Words at the beginning of the list are repeated more, so they are more likely to get into LTM
Subject begins recall after counting backwards for 30 seconds.= Recency effect is eliminated because rehearsal is prevented.
refers to the form in which stimuli are represented.
For example, as we discussed in Chapter 2 , a person's face can be represented by the pattern of firing of a number of neurons
physiological approach to coding
Determining how a stimulus is represented by the firing of neurons
mental approach to coding
asking how a stimulus or an experience is represented in the mind.
Types of Coding
visual coding (coding in the mind in the form of a visual image),
auditory coding (coding in the mind in the form of a sound)
semantic coding (coding in the mind in terms of meaning) in both STM and LTM.
Short Term Vs Long Term Coding
See chart for comparison of ST VS LT
LTM Visual Coding
You use visual coding in long-term memory when you visualize a person or place from the past. For example, if you are remembering your fifth-grade teacher's face, you are using visual coding.
LTM Auditory Coding
Auditory coding occurs in long-term memory when you "play" a song in your head. Another example of auditory coding sometimes occurs when listening to a CD or playlist that has a short period of silence between tracks. Some people report that for CDs or playlists they have listened to many times, they "hear" the beginning of the next song during the silence, just before it comes on. This happens because an auditory representation from long-term memory is triggered by the end of the previous song.
predominant coding in STM is auditory
LTM Semantic Coding -Sachs Experiment
demonstrated semantic coding in long-term memory. Sachs had subjects listen to a tape recording of a passage and then measured their recognition memory to determine whether they remembered the exact wording of sentences in the passage or just the general meaning of the passage.
found that specific wording is forgotten but the general meaning can be remembered for a long time has been confirmed in many experiments. This description in terms of meaning is an example of semantic coding in LTM.
predominant coding in LTM
is the identification of a stimulus that was encountered earlier. The procedure for measuring recognition memory is to present a stimulus during a study period and later to present the same stimulus along with others that were not presented.
Recall Vs Recognition
Recall = fill in the blank test
Recognition=Multiple choice test
Working memory in the Brain
prefrontal cortex and visual cortex
STM Vs LTM In The Brain
Some overlap and some separation in the brain. Neuropsychological studies are done to prove separation.
H.M. Neuropsychological Studies
Henry Molaison underwent an experimental procedure designed to eliminate seizures. The procedure, which removed the hippocampus on both sides of his brain, succeeded but had the unintended effect of eliminating his ability to form new long-term memories.
STM was unaffected but couldn't transfer new info to LTM
He "met" his doctor every time he saw her over decades because he never remembered her
Studies led to an understanding of the role of the hippocampus in forming new long-term memories. Furthermore, the fact that his short-term memory remained intact suggested that short-term and long-term memories are served by separate brain regions.
Clive Wearing Neuropsychological Study
Wearing was a highly respected musician and choral director in England who, in his 40s, contracted viral encephalitis, which destroyed parts of his medial temporal lobe, which includes the hippocampus, the amygdala, and other structures in the temporal lobe.
Because of his brain damage, Wearing lives totally within the most recent 1 or 2 minutes of his life. Because of his inability to form new memories, he constantly feels he has just woken up. As with H.M., Wearing's case demonstrates the separation of short-term and long-term memory
K.F. Neuropsychological Studies
K.F., who had suffered damage to his parietal lobe in a motorbike accident. K.F.'s poor STM was indicated by a reduced digit span—the number of digits he could remember. Whereas the typical span is between five and nine digits, K.F. had a digit span of two; in addition, the recency effect in his serial position curve, which is associated with STM, was reduced. Even though K.F.'s STM was greatly impaired, he had a functioning LTM, as indicated by his ability to form and hold new memories of events in his life.
The opposite results create a double dissociation between LTM and STM. This evidence supports the idea that STM and LTM are caused by different mechanisms, which can act independently.
Brain Imaging Tests
They're not as straightforward about the separation of the memories.
Charan Ranganath and Mark D'Esposito
Brain Imaging Tests show Hippocampus DOES play a role in STM. Especially for novel stimuli.
asked whether the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new long-term memories, might also play a role in holding information for short periods of time.
The results indicate that activity in the hippocampus increases as subjects are holding novel faces in memory during the 7-second delay, but activity changes only slightly for the familiar faces. Based on this result, Ranganath and D'Esposito concluded that the hippocampus is involved in maintaining novel information in memory during short delays. Results such as these, plus the results of many other experiments, show that the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures once thought to be involved only in long-term memory also play some role in short-term memory
Episodic Vs Semantic LTM
episodic memory (memory for experiences) semantic memory (memory for facts)
(1) the type of experience associated with episodic and semantic memories,
(2) how brain damage affects each one
(3) the fMRI responses to each one.
1st proposed episotic and semantic hold different types of information AND that episodic and semantic memory can be distinguished based on the type of experience associated with each
According to Tulving, the defining property of the experience of episodic memory is that it involves mental time travel —the experience of traveling back in time to reconnect with events that happened in the past.
In short, when I remember this incident, I feel as if I am reliving it. Tulving describes this experience of mental time travel/episodic memory as self-knowing or REMEMBERING
the experience of semantic memory involves accessing knowledge about the world that does not have to be tied to remembering a personal experience. This knowledge can be things like facts, vocabulary, numbers, and concepts. When we experience semantic memory, we are not traveling back to a specific event from our past, but we are accessing things we are familiar with and know about.
Tulving describes the experience of semantic memory as KNOWING , with the idea that knowing does not involve mental time travel.
K.C. Patient Study Episodic vs Semantic
Hippocampus holds Episodic Memory but not semantic
wrecked his motorcycle and suffered severe damage to his hippocampus and surrounding structures. K.C. lost his episodic memory—he can no longer relive any of the events of his past. He does, however, know that certain things happened, which would correspond to semantic memory. He is aware of the fact that his brother died 2 years ago but remembers nothing about personal
Double Disassociation Semantic vs Episodic
Italian woman got encephalitis and lost her semantic memory but her Episodic and could form new episodic memories
Brian Levine and coworkers fMRI Episodic Vs Semantic
did a brain imaging experiment in which they had subjects keep diaries of events and facts. They read them back to them in an fMRI.
The scans showed distinct areas for both types of memory
The yellow areas represent brain regions associated with episodic memories; the blue areas are brain regions associated with semantic, factual knowledge (personal and nonpersonal). These results and others indicate that while there can be overlap between activation caused by episodic and semantic memories, there are also major differences
Interactions between Semantic and Episodic
In real life, episodic and semantic memories are often intertwined. Two examples are (1) how knowledge (semantic) affects experience (episodic) and (2) the makeup of autobiographical memory.
Our knowledge (semantic memory) guides our experience, and this, in turn, influences the episodic memories that follow from that experience.
memory for specific experiences from our life, which can include both episodic and semantic components.
For example, consider the following autobiographical memory: "When I met Gil and Mary at the Le Buzz coffee shop yesterday, we sat at our favorite table, which is located near the window, but which is hard to get in the morning when Le Buzz is busy."
personal semantic memories
facts associated with personal experiences
Types of Long Term Memory
Episodic - personal experience /time travel
Semantic - facts
Autobiographical - both of the above
Robyn Westmacott and Morris Moskovitch (2003) Autobiographically Significant Semantic Memories
showed that people's knowledge about public figures, such as actors, singers, and politicians, can include both semantic and episodic components. For example, if you know some facts about Oprah Winfrey and that she had a television program, your knowledge would be mainly semantic. But if you can remember watching some of her television shows, your memory for Oprah Winfrey would have episodic components.
call the memories involving personal episodes autobiographically significant semantic memories.
you would be more likely to recall the name of a popular singer in a memory test if you had attended one of his or her concerts than if you had just read about the singer in a magazine.
How Time Affects Memory
We are more likely to remember the details of something that happened yesterday than something that happened a year ago.
One procedure for determining what happens to memory as time passes is to present stimuli and then, after some time passes, ask a subject to recall the stimuli or to indicate whether they recognize the stimuli. The typical result of these experiments is that subjects forget some of the stimuli, with forgetting increasing at longer time intervals.
the person seems familiar and you might remember his name, but you can't remember any details about specific experiences involving that person.
Familiarity is associated with semantic memory because it is not associated with the circumstances under which knowledge was acquired.
Example 3 illustrates recollection —remembering specific experiences related to the person
Recollection is associated with episodic memory because it includes details about what was happening when the knowledge was acquired and an awareness of the event as it was experienced in the past.
Measuring recollection and familiarity are done with this procedure.
subjects are presented with a stimulus they have encountered before and are asked to respond (1) remember if the stimulus is familiar and they also remember the circumstances under which they originally encountered it; (2) know if the stimulus seems familiar but they don't remember experiencing it earlier; or (3) don't know if they don't remember the stimulus at all.
This procedure is important because it distinguishes between the episodic components of memory (indicated by a remember response) and semantic components (indicated by a know response).
Raluca Petrican and coworkers
determined how people's memory for public events changes over time
by presenting descriptions of events that had happened over a 50-year period to older adults (average age = 63 years) and asking them to respond remember if they had a personal experience associated with the event or recollected seeing details about the event on TV or in the newspaper. They were to respond know if they were familiar with the event but couldn't recollect any personal experience or details related to media coverage of the event. If they couldn't remember the event at all, they were to respond don't know
As would be expected, complete forgetting increased over time (red bars). But the interesting result is that remember responses decreased much more than know responses, meaning that memories for 40- to 50-year-old events had lost much of their episodic character.
semanticization of remote memories
loss of episodic detail for memories of long-ago events.
research doesn't ask how well we can predict the future, but asks how well we can create possible scenarios about the future.
There is evidence of a connection between the ability to remember the past and the ability to create future scenarios. Evidence for this connection is provided by patients who have lost their episodic memory as a result of brain damage.
Patients who've lost their episodic memory and cant tell you their past also can not imagine the future (except for statistical type futures)
Donna Rose Addis
look for a physiological link by using fMRI to determine how the brain is activated by remembering the past and imagining the future. When brain activation was measured as neurologically normal subjects silently thought about either events from the past or events that might happen in the future, the results indicated that all the brain regions active during silent description of the past were also active during silent description of the future
Constructive Episodic Simulation Hypothesis - Schacter and Addis
states that episodic memories are extracted and recombined to construct simulations of future events.
They suggest that perhaps the main role of the episodic memory system is not to remember the past, but to enable people to simulate possible future scenarios in order to help anticipate future needs and guide future behavior.
Dementia Patients and Future
some patients with semantic dementia—poor semantic memory but intact episodic memory—also have problems in describing the episodic details of what might happen in the future
This result suggests that both episodic and semantic memory systems need to be functioning in order for us to think about the personal future
Types of Long Term Memory LTM
A. Explicit (conscious)
1. Episodic (personal events)
2. Semantic (facts and knowledge)
B.Implicit (not conscious)
1. Procedural Memory
3. Conditioning Memory
Explicit memories are memories we are aware of.
memories we aren't aware of
Implicit memory occurs when learning from experience is not accompanied by conscious remembering.
For example, we do many things without being able to explain how we do them. These abilities come under the heading of procedural memories
Procedural Memory (Skill Memory)
Procedural memory is also called skill memory because it is memory for doing things that usually involve learned skills.
Example: tying shoes, riding a bike, playing the piano
Amnesia and Implicit Memory
The implicit nature of procedural memory has been demonstrated in amnesiac patients like the musician Clive Wearing, discussed earlier, who lost his ability to form new long-term memories but who could still play the piano. Amnesiac patients can also master new skills even though they don't remember any of the practice that led to this mastery.
Mirror Drawing H.M.
H'M. Got really good at mirror drawing even though he didn't remember practicing it every day. Proves implicit nature of procedural memory.
Draw a star like the one in Figure 6.13 on a piece of paper. Place a mirror or some other reflective surface (some cell phone screens work) about an inch or two from the star, so that the reflection of the star is visible. Then, while looking at the reflection, trace the outline of the star on the paper (no fair looking at the actual drawing on the paper!). You will probably find that the task is difficult at first, but becomes easier with practice.
Cognitive Procedural Memories
your ability to have a conversation / grammar
Priming occurs when the presentation of one stimulus (the priming stimulus) changes the way a person responds to another stimulus (the test stimulus).
repetition priming , occurs when the test stimulus is the same as or resembles the priming stimulus.
For example, seeing the word BIRD may cause you to respond more quickly to a later presentation of the word BIRD than to a word you had not seen, even though you may not remember seeing bird earlier.
Repetition priming is called implicit memory because the priming effect can occur even though subjects may not remember the original presentation of the priming stimuli.
Amnesia Patients and Priming - Graf
One way to ensure that a person doesn't remember the presentation of the priming stimulus is to test patients with amnesia.
Peter Graf and coworkers (1985) did this by testing three groups of subjects:
(1) amnesiac patients with a condition called Korsakoff's syndrome, which is associated with alcohol abuse and eliminates the ability to form new long-term memories;
(2) patients without amnesia who were under treatment for alcoholism; and
(3) patients without amnesia who had no history of alcoholism.
RESULTS of the recall experiment, show that the amnesiac patients recalled fewer words than the two control groups. This poor recall confirms the poor explicit memory associated with their amnesia.
PRIMING RESULTS of the word completion test, showing the percentage of primed words that were created ( Figure 6.14b ), indicate that the amnesiac patients performed just as well as the controls. This increase in performance is an example of priming.
Avoiding Explicit Memory In a Priming Test
One way to minimize the chances that a person with normal memory will remember the presentation of the priming stimulus is to present the priming stimulus in a task that does not appear to be a memory task. OR
Rapid response tests
Advertising Effects - by T. J. Perfect and C. Askew -Priming
had subjects scan articles in a magazine. Each page of print was faced by an advertisement, but subjects were not told to pay attention to the advertisements. When they were later asked to rate a number of advertisements on various dimensions, such as how appealing, eye-catching, distinctive, and memorable they were, they gave higher ratings to the ones they had been exposed to than to other advertisements that they had never seen.
This result qualifies as an effect of implicit memory because when the subjects were asked to indicate which advertisements had been presented at the beginning of the experiment, they recognized only an average of 2.8 of the original 25 advertisements.
in which subjects are more likely to rate statements they have read or heard before as being true, simply because they have been exposed to them before.
This effect can occur even when the person is told that the statements are false when they first read or hear them (Begg et al., 1992).
The propaganda effect involves implicit memory because it can operate even when people are not aware that they have heard or seen a statement before, and may even have thought it was false when they first heard it.
Classical Conditioning Experiments
occurs when the following two stimuli are paired: (1) a neutral stimulus that initially does not result in a response
(2) a conditioning stimulus that does result in a response
An example of classical conditioning from the laboratory is presenting a tone to a person followed by a puff of air to the eye that causes the person to blink. The tone initially does not cause an eyeblink, but after a number of pairings with the puff of air, the person blinks in response to the tone. This is implicit memory because it can occur even if the person has forgotten about the original pairing of the tone and the air puff.
Classical Conditioning Real Life
-often linked to emotional reactions
-Blue lights causing nervousness (but not implicit because you remember why blue lights make you nervous)
-An example of classical conditioning causing implicit memory is provided by a situation in which you meet someone who seems familiar but you can't remember how you know him or her. Have you ever had this experience and also felt positively or negatively about the person, without knowing why? If so, your emotional reaction was an example of implicit memory.
Memory Loss Movies
"The Vow" based on the Carpenter couple. Woman lost memory of ever knowing hubby after car crash. Movie is realistic.
THESE BASED LOOSELY ON REAL DISORDERS
"Bourne Identity" Based on "psychogenic fugue"
Who Am I? (1998), Jackie Chan, a top secret soldier, loses his memory in a helicopter crash, triggering a quest to recover his identity. In Dead Again (1991), a mystery woman played by Emma Thompson can't remember anything about her life. In The Long Kiss Goodnight (1996), Geena Davis plays a suburban homemaker who begins remembering events from her previous life as a secret agent after suffering a blow to her head.
Memento , where Lenny's problem (Like H.M.) is identified as a loss of short-term memory. This reflects a common belief (at least among those who have not taken a cognitive psychology course) that forgetting things that have happened within the last few minutes or hours is a breakdown in short-term memory.
THESE FAKE DISORDERS
Total Recall, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind
50 First Dates (total fiction)
Symptoms of this condition include traveling away from where the person lives and a lack of memory forthe past, especially personal information such as name, relationships, place of residence, and occupation. In the few cases that have been reported, a person vanishes from his or her normal life situation, often travels far away, and takes on a new identity unrelated to the previous one
selectively forgetting specific events. This occasionally occurs, as when memories for particularly traumatic events are lost (although sometimes the opposite happens, so traumatic events stand out in memory;
Coding Vs Encoding
the process of acquiring information and transferring it into LTM
Notice that the term encoding is similar to the term coding that we discussed in relation to STM and LTM
CODING refers to the form in which information is represented. For example, a word can be CODED visually or by its sound or by its meaning.
ENCODING refers to the process used to get information into LTM.
For example, a word can be encoded by repeating it over and over, by thinking of other words that rhyme with it, or by using it in a sentence.
process of transferring information from LTM to working memory is called retrieval
involves accessing some of the information that you've encoded and transferring it from LTM into working memory to become consciously aware of it.
maintenance rehearsal encoding
repeating something over and over WITHOUT any consideration of meaning or making connections with other information.
Typically, this type of rehearsal results in poor memory, so you don't remember the number when you want to call it again later.
elaborative rehearsal encoding
repeating something over and over WITH consideration of meaning or making connections with other information.
Typically, this type of rehearsal results in better memory than maintenance rehearsal.
Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart (1972)
Studied levels of processing theory
memory retrieval is affected by how items are encoded—is still widely accepted
levels of processing theory
An early idea linking the type of encoding to retrieval. According to levels of processing theory, memory depends on the depth of processing that an item receives.
Depth of processing
Depth of processing distinguishes between shallow processing and deep processing
Shallow processing involves little attention to meaning, as when a phone number is repeated over and over or attention is focused on a word's physical features such as whether it is printed in lowercase or capital letters.
Deep processing involves close attention, focusing on an item's meaning and relating it to something else. According to levels of processing theory, deep processing results in better memory than shallow processing.
processing, Craik and Endel Tulving (1975)
experiment testing memory following different levels of processing. Deeper processing = better memory.
presented words to subjects and asked them three different types of questions:
1. (Physical Features=Shallow Processing) A question about the physical features of the word. For example, subjects see the word bird and are asked whether it is printed in capital letters
2. A (rhyming = deeper processing) question about rhyming. For example, subjects see the word train and are asked if it rhymes with the word pain .
3. A fill-in-the-blanks (deepest processing) question. For example, subjects see the word car and are asked if it fits into the sentence "He saw a _______ on the street."
After subjects responded to these three types of questions, they were given a memory test to see how well they recalled the words.
RESULTS indicate that deeper processing is associated with better memory.
Defining depth of processing
What is needed is a way to define depth of processing that is independent of the memory test, but such a definition does not exist.
Gordon Bower and David Winzenz (1970)
decided to test whether using visual imagery— "images in the head" that connect words visually—can create connections that enhance memory.
They used a procedure called paired-associate learning.
presented a list of 15 pairs of nouns, such as boat - tree , to subjects for 5 seconds each. One group was told to silently repeat the pairs as they were presented, and another group was told to form a mental picture in which the two items were interacting. When subjects were later given the first word and asked to recall the second one for each pair
RESULTS the subjects who had created images remembered more than twice as many words as the subjects who had just repeated the word pairs
a list of word pairs is presented. Later, the first word of each pair is presented, and the subject's task is to remember the word it was paired with.
Another example of how memory is improved by encoding.
Memory is better if you are asked to relate a word to yourself.
One possible explanation is that the words become linked to something the subjects know well— themselves. Generally, statements that result in richer, more detailed representations in a person's mind result in better memory.
T. B. Rogers and coworkers -self-reference effect
Used questions like in the Depth of Processing experiment but related the questions to the subject i.e. make answers apply to you
RESULTS Subjects were more likely to remember words that they had rated as describing themselves.
Generation Effect - Norman Slameka and Peter Graf (1978)
Generating material yourself, rather than passively receiving it, enhances learning and retention
demonstrated by having subjects study a list of word pairs in two different ways:
Read group : Read these pairs of related words. king-crown; horse-saddle; lamp-shade; etc.
Generate group : Fill in the blank with a word that is related to the first word. king-cr _______ ; horse-sa _______ ; lamp-sh _______ ; etc.
Subjects who had generated the second word in each pair were able to reproduce 28 percent more word pairs than subjects who had just read the word pairs.
Like folders on your desktop
subjects spontaneously organize items as they recall them
remembering words in a particular category may serve as a retrieval cue —a word or other stimulus that helps a person remember information stored in memory.
Gordon Bower - Organizational Tree
If words presented randomly become organized in the mind, what happens when words are presented in an organized way during encoding? Gordon Bower and coworkers (1969) answered this question by presenting material to be learned in an "organizational tree," which organized a number of words according to categories.
RESULTS organizing material to be remembered results in substantially better recall.
Factors that Aid Encoding
What do these procedures have in common?
Practicing retrieval and generating information both involve actively creating and recreating material.
accurate to say that each increases the richness of representation in memory by providing connections between the material to be remembered and other material in memory.
For example, when material is organized, it becomes easier to form links between items (such as apple, grape , and plum ) in a list.
there is a close relationship between encoding and retrieval..
John Bransford and Marcia Johnson (1972) -Prevented organization encoding methods
Had subjects read a paragraph with seemingly unrelated information (no context). Subjects had trouble remembering it. Subjects that saw a visual ahead of time remembered more. Picture provided a mental framework.
James Nairne (2010) -Survival Value
proposes that we can understand how memory works by considering its function, because, through the process of evolution, memory was shaped to increase the ability to survive.
Linking words to survival created memory that was not only better than memory created by counting vowels but was also better than memory achieved by the "elaborative" tasks we have described such as forming visual images, linking words to oneself, and generating information. Whether this advantage is due to evolution is debated among memory researchers, but there is no question that relating words to something meaningful and potentially important like survival does enhance memory
This enhanced performance due to retrieval practice is called the testing effect . It has been demonstrated in a large number of experiments, both in the laboratory and in classroom settings
Encoding Procedures That Affect Retrieval
What do these procedures have in common?
Practicing retrieval and generating information both involve actively creating and recreating material.
accurate to say that each increases the richness of representation in memory by providing connections between the material to be remembered and other material in memory.
For example, when material is organized, it becomes easier to form links between items (such as apple, grape , and plum ) in a list.
there is a close relationship between encoding and retrieval.
Retrieval Cues (more detail)
words or other stimuli that help us remember information stored in our memory.
they can be provided by a number of different sources.
two types of recall procedures.
a subject is simply asked to recall stimuli.
These stimuli could be words previously presented by the experimenter or events experienced earlier in the subject's life.
In cued recall , the subject is presented with retrieval cues to aid in recall of the previously experienced stimuli. These cues are typically words or phrases.
Tulving and Pearlstone's Recall Experiment
The results of Tulving and Pearlstone's experiment demonstrate that retrieval cues aid memory. Subjects in the free recall group recalled 40 percent of the words, whereas subjects in the cued recall group who had been provided with the names of categories recalled 75 percent of the words.
Timo Mantyla (1986) - retrieval cue experiment
o presented his subjects with a list of 504 nouns, such as banana, freedom , and tree
. During this study phase, subjects were told to write three words they associated with each noun.
For example, three words for banana might be yellow, bunches , and edible
. In the test phase of the experiment, these subjects were presented with the three words they had generated (self-generated retrieval cues) for half the nouns, or with three words that someone else had generated (other-person- generated retrieval cues) for the other half of the nouns.
Their task was to remember the noun they had seen during the study phase.
The results indicated that when the self-generated retrieval cues were presented, subjects remembered 91 percent of the words but when the other-person-generated retrieval cues were presented, subjects remembered only 55 percent of the words
The results of this experiment demonstrate that retrieval cues (the three words) provide extremely effective information for retrieving memories, but
that retrieval cues are significantly more effective when they are created by the person whose memory is being tested
The retrieval cues in the two experiments we just described were verbal "hints"—category names like "furniture" in the Tulving and Pearlstone experiment and three-word descriptions created by the subjects in the Mantyla experiment.
Matching Conditions of Encoding and Retrieval
Retrieval can be increased by matching the conditions at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding. (Going to location where memory took place)
3 Ways to Achieve Matching
(1) encoding specificity—matching the context in which encoding and retrieval occur
; (2) state-dependent learning— matching the internal mood present during encoding and retrieval;
(3) transfer-appropriate processing—matching the task involved in encoding and retrieval.
encoding specificity (physical)
The principle of encoding specificity states that we encode information along with its context. For example, Angela encoded many experiences within the context of her grandparents' house. When she reinstated this context by returning to the house many years later, she remembered many of these experiences.
D. R. Godden and Alan Baddeley's (1975) "diving experiment."
suggest that a good strategy for test taking would be to study in an environment similar to the environment in which you will be tested.
suggest that a good strategy for test taking would be to study in an environment similar to the environment in which you will be tested (encoding specificity)
outside stimulation such as music or television present helps them study. This idea clearly violates the principle of encoding specificity.
state-dependent learning (emotional / feeling)
learning that is associated with a particular internal state , such as mood or state of awareness.
According to the principle of state-dependent learning, memory will be better when a person's internal state (mood or awareness) during retrieval matches his or her internal state during encoding.
Transfer Appropriate Processing (cognitive matching)
better performance when the type of processing matches in encoding and retrieval
Donald Morris and coworkers (1977) did an experiment that showed that retrieval is better if the same cognitive tasks are involved during both encoding and retrieval.
The question Morris was interested in was how the subjects' ability to retrieve the target words would be affected by the way they processed the words during the retrieval part of the experiment. There were a number of different conditions
key result of this experiment was that the subjects' retrieval performance depended on whether the retrieval task matched the encoding task
ALSO Morris's experiment shows that deeper processing at encoding does not always result in better retrieval, as prop
subjects who had focused on rhyming during encoding remembered more words than subjects who had focused on meaning. Thus, subjects who had focused on the word's sound during the first part of the experiment did better when the test involved focusing on sound. This result—better performance when the type of processing matches in encoding and retrieval—is called transfer-appropriate processing .
new memories are fragile and can therefore be disrupted.
Müller and Pilzecker proposed the term consolidation , which is defined as the process that transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption
two types of mechanisms responsible for consolidation based on mechanisms that involve both synapses and neural circuits.
Synaptic and Systems
occurring together, but at different speeds and at different levels of the nervous system.
When something happens, a process is triggered that causes changes at the synapse. Meanwhile, a longer-term process begins that involves reorganization of neural circuits.
Thus, synaptic and systems consolidation are processes that occur simultaneously—one that works rapidly, at the level of the synapse, and another that works more slowly, at the level of neural circuits.
which takes place over minutes or hours, involves structural changes at synapses.
Systems consolidation ,
which takes place over months or even years, involves the gradual reorganization of neural circuits within the brain (Nader & Einarsson, 2010).
Experience Nerve Impulses
Let's assume that a particular experience causes nerve impulses to travel down the axon of neuron A in Figure 7.14a , and when these impulses reach the synapse, neurotransmitter is released onto neuron B. Hebb's idea was that repeated activity can strengthen the synapse by causing structural changes, greater transmitter release, and increased firing
Hebb also proposed that changes that occur in the hundreds or thousands of synapses that are activated around the same time by a particular experience provide a neural record of the experience.
Hebb's proposal that synaptic changes provide a record of experiences became the starting point for modern research on the physiology of memory. Researchers who followed Hebb's lead determined that activity at the synapse causes a sequence of chemical reactions, which result in the synthesis of new proteins that cause structural changes at the synapse
long-term potentiation (LTP)
One of the outcomes of structural changes at the synapse is a strengthening of synaptic transmission.
This strengthening results in a phenomenon called long-term potentiation (LTP) —enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation (Bliss & Lomo, 1973; Bliss et al., 2003; Kandel, 2001). Long-term potentiation is illustrated by the firing records in Figure 7.14 . The first time neuron A is stimulated, neuron B fires slowly ( Figure 7.14a). However, after repeated stimulation ( Figure 7.14b ), neuron B fires much more rapidly to the same stimulus ( Figure 7.14c).
Hippocampus & Cortex :Consolidation
Once it became clear that the hippocampus is essential for forming new memories, researchers began determining exactly how the hippocampus responds to stimuli and how it participates in the process of systems consolidation.
Most researchers accept that both the hippocampus and the cortex are involved in consolidation. There is, however, some disagreement regarding whether the hippocampus is important only at the beginning of consolidation, as depicted in Figure 7.15, or whether the hippocampus continues to be important, even for remote memories.
standard model of consolidation
One outcome of this research was the proposal of the sequence of steps shown in Figure 7.15 . This picture of the process of consolidation, called the standard model of consolidation , proposes that incoming information activates a number of areas in the cortex ( Figure 7.15a ). Activation is distributed across the cortex because memories typically involve many sensory and cognitive areas.
For example, your memory for last New Year's Eve could include sights, sounds, and possibly smells, as well as emotions you were feeling and thoughts you were thinking at the stroke of midnight. To deal with the fact that the activity resulting from this experience is distributed across many cortical areas, the cortex communicates with the hippocampus, as indicated by the colored lines in Figure 7.15a. The hippocampus coordinates the activity of the different cortical areas, which, at this point, are not yet connected in the cortex.
The major mechanism of consolidation is reactivation , a process in which the hippocampus replays the neural activity associated with a memory. During reactivation, activity occurs in the network connecting the hippocampus and the cortex ( Figure 7.15b), and this activity helps form direct connections between the various cortical areas ( Figure 7.15c). This way of thinking about the interaction between the hippocampus and the cortex pictures the hippocampus as acting like a "glue" that binds together the representations of memory from different cortical areas.
This loss of memory for events that occurred before the injury, called retrograde amnesia , can extend back minutes, hours, or even years, depending on the nature of the injury.
graded amnesia —the amnesia tends to be most severe for events that happened just before the injury and to become less severe for earlier events. This gradual decrease in amnesia corresponds, according to the standard model, to the changes in connections between the hippocampus and cortical areas shown in Figures 7.15b and 7.15c; as time passes after an event, connections between the cortical areas are formed and strengthened, and the connections between the hippocampus and cortex weaken and eventually vanish.
multiple trace model of consolidation
multiple trace model of consolidation , the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of episodic memories, even if they originated long ago (Nadel & Moskovitch, 1997). Evidence for this idea comes from experiments like one by Asaf Gilboa and coworkers (2004), who elicited recent and remote episodic memories by showing subjects photographs of themselves engaging in various activities that were taken at times ranging from very recently to the distant past, when they were 5 years old. The results of this experiment showed that the hippocampus was activated during retrieval of both recent and remote episodic memories.
Memory Performance After Sleep
Memory performance after a night's sleep, shown in Figure 7.19b, indicates that the expected group performed significantly better than the unexpected group. Thus, even though both groups had the same training and received the same amount of sleep, memory for the task was stronger if subjects expected they would be tested. Results such as this suggest that when we sleep after learning, memories that are more important are more likely to be strengthened by consolidation (see also Fischer & Born, 2009; Payne et al., 2008, 2012; Rauchs et al., 2011; Saletin et al., 2011; van Dongen et al., 2012). Thus, we sleep, perchance to selectively consolidate memories for things that might be most useful to remember later!
reconsolidation - Nader
Recent research, first on rats and then on humans, has suggested a possible mechanism for updating memories. These experiments support the idea that when a memory is retrieved, it becomes fragile, as it was when it was originally formed, and that when it is in this fragile state, it needs to be consolidated again—a process called reconsolidation
This result shows that when a memory is reactivated, it becomes fragile, just as it was immediately after it was first formed, and the drug can prevent reconsolidation. Thus, just as the original memory is fragile until it is consolidated for the first time , a reactivated memory becomes fragile until it is reconsolidated . Looked at in this way, memory becomes susceptible to being changed or disrupted every time it is retrieved. You might think that this is not a good thing. After all, putting your memory at risk of disruption every time you use it doesn't sound particularly useful.
Generate and test
Avoid Illusion of Learning: re-reading, familiarity effect, highlighting
Self Test Method
SELF TEST practicing retrieval of information by making up and answering practice test questions results in better memory than rereading the information (Karpicke, 2012).
RESULTS show that there was little difference between the rereading and testing groups after the 5-minute delay but that after 1 week, the testing group's performance was much better than the rereading group's.
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