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Ineffective families have been linked to persistent violent offending. Which is not a factor characteristic of an ineffective family?

parental involvement

Sigmund Freud believed that human aggression and violence are produced by instinctual drives. ____ is the death instinct that is sometimes expressed externally as violence or internally as suicide and alcoholism.


Children exposed to violence at home, at school, or in the environment may adopt violent methods themselves. Which children are most likely to engage in violent behavior?

children exposed to violence in the home and who live in a neighborhood with high violence rates

The Uniform Crime Report indicates that __________ of all murders and about two-fifths of all robberies involve firearms.


In their study of homicide, Kubrin and Weitzer found that when police and other agencies of formal social control are seen as ___________ some people are willing to take the law into their own hands and commit what the researchers called a "cultural retaliatory homicide."

weak and devalued

The common law definition of rape derives from the Latin word rapere meaning ______ and is defined as "the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will."

to take by force

According to Groth, every rape encounter contains at least one of three elements: anger, power, or


Unlike any other crime, in a rape case it is essential to prove that the attack was forced and that no question of ____ exists.

voluntary compliance

When Diane Whipple died after being attacked by two large dogs in the hallway of her apartment building, one of the dogs' owners was convicted of manslaughter based on the legal principle of

deliberate indifference.

Research indicates a variety of facts about murder. Which of the following murder facts is inaccurate?

Over the last decade, the number of stranger murders has decreased.

One type of interpersonal violence is child abuse. Which age group suffers the highest rate of child abuse victimization?

children in the age group of birth to one year old

Women are often victimized by their intimate partners, whether in married or dating relationships. How many high school girls are estimated to experience sexual or physical violence from a boyfriend?

one in five

A number of research studies have been focused on armed robbers. What do these studies indicate?

Robbers are rational decision makers who look for easy prey.

In 2007, the FBI recorded 7,700 hate crime incidents that involved 9,500 victims. Most of these hate crime incidents were motivated by


Frederick Lawrence argues that criminals motivated by bias deserve to be punished more severely than those who commit identical crimes for other motives. Why is this so?

Bias crimes should be punished more severely for all these reasons.

Workplace violence is the third leading cause of occupational injury or death. Who is the typical offender in incidents of workplace violence?

a middle-aged white male facing termination

____ are typically located in rural areas and attack military, police, and government targets in an effort to unseat or replace the existing government.


This term began to be used during the Iraq war and described the forces opposed to American involvement. Members are typically organized into covert groups who engage in organized campaigns of extreme violence.


Embezzlement occurs when someone who is trusted with property fraudulently converts it. What do we know about embezzlement?

Embezzlement goes back to ancient Greece.

Criminologists suspect that, of the millions of property and theft-related crimes that occur each year, most are committed by

occasional criminals.

Most states have changed the legal requirements for burglary, removing the element of "forced entry." What is entry via deceit legally considered?

constructive breaking

Sometimes adolescents are coerced into shoplifting by older peers. This type of shoplifter is termed a

proxy shoplifter.

Cargo thieves are professionals who work in highly organized groups and employ specialists, such as ____, who physically move the goods and work with drivers to transport stolen merchandise from docks.


Female and male burglars show similar offending patterns but specific gender differences do exist. Which is one of those differences?

Female burglars are more likely to work with a partner.

To promote the arrest of amateur and professional shoplifters, a number of states have passed _____ laws that are designed to protect retailers and their employees from lawsuits stemming from improper or false arrests of suspected shoplifters.

merchant privilege

Fifteenth and sixteenth century foreign mercenary troops looted and pillaged the English and French country sides because they felt such theft was

a rightful part of their pay.

The "swoop and squat," the drive down, the sideswipe, and the t-bone are forms of what type of crime?

third party fraud

______ thieves are opportunistic amateurs who steal because of situational inducements.


______ criminals often deny their criminality. These offenders are most likely to respond to the general deterrent effect of the law.


Why have shoplifting incidents increased dramatically in the past twenty years?

Because popular retailers rely on highly visible merchandise displays to attract purchasers.

During the eighteenth century _______ moved freely in sparsely populated areas and transported stolen goods, such as gems, gold, and spices, without paying tax or duty.


Why do most state jurisdictions punish burglary as a felony?

Because the potential for harm to the occupants is so significant.

Neal Shover studied the careers of professional burglars finding key requirements of "the good burglar." Which is not one of those key requirements?

cultivating a ring of bail bond agents

A few professionals make a substantial living by passing bad checks. Lemert referred to these persons as

systematic forgers.

A new form of professional auto theft is called _____ and involves stealing VIN plates from a luxury auto on a dealer lot and placing the stolen VIN plate on an identical luxury vehicle stolen from a mall or parking lot.


The FBI's Uniform Crime Report recorded 6.5 million acts of larceny in 2008, which reflects

a continued steep decline over the past decade.

English judges created the concept of constructive possession to get around the element of

trespass in the taking.

False pretenses or fraud differs from traditional larceny because

the victims willingly give their possessions to the offender.

The definition of larceny evolved with the growth of manufacturing and the development of

the free enterprise system

Eliminating business competition by burning out rivals is a form of

arson for profit.

Repeat burglars may return to strike a previous target because

goods were observed that could not be removed the first time.

In the 18th century skilled thieves found in larger cities, such as London and Paris, congregated in _____ - public meeting places, often taverns that served asgang headquarters.

"flash houses"

How a larceny is committed can affect its definition. It is automatically considered grand larceny to

steal a firearm from a home or car.

The evolution of organized crime has led to the _____, a FBI investigation tool that focuses on criminal enterprise and investigates the structure of criminal enterprise groups.

enterprise theory of investigation

In his research on fraud, Cressey found that the ________ view allowed professionals to excuse their criminal behavior since, "all people steal when they get in a tight spot."


Bernard Madoff has been referred to as the greatest ____ of all time.

financial chiseler

______ organized crime groups are believed to be the main purveyors of credit card fraud in the United States.


Crimes of the marketplace are referred to as _____ crime and include white-collar crime, cyber crime and organized crime.


Your friend has listed an item for sale online that he does not possess. He "sells" the item and keeps the money. What cyber crime has your friend committed?

etailing fraud.

In 1907, sociologist E. A. Ross described the "criminaloid:" a business leader who, while enjoying immunity from the law, victimized an unsuspecting public. Today, Ross's criminaloid refers to one who commits

corporate crime.

When someone illegally obtains software and then "cracks" or "rips" it and posts it on the Internet for others to use, the resulting pirated software is called


What percentage of websites offering drugs for sale require no prescription from a patient's physician?


White-collar crime, cyber crime, and organized crime are linked because they involve

twisting the legal rules of commercial enterprise for criminal purposes.

Pharmacists have been known to alter prescriptions or substitute low-cost generic drugs for more expensive name brands. This is an example of which category of white-collar crime?

professional chiseling

While power in traditional bullying is the result of physical (stature) or social (competency or popularity) factors, power in cyber bullying stems from ____

net proficiency

One form of _____ involves "payola" - record companies paying radio stations to play songs without making listeners aware of the bribes.

influence peddling

A pyramid scheme is one type of ______ whereby people use their institutional or business position to trick others out of their money.

white-collar fraud

The _________ is the view that organized crime is a direct offshoot of a criminal society - the Mafia - that first originated in Italy and Sicily.

alien conspiracy theory

According to the _______view, some business organizations promote white-collar criminality in the same way that lower-class culture encourages the development of juvenile gangs and street crimes.

corporate culture

The IT revolution has revitalized the porn industry. What do we know about adult entertainment on the web?

All of these things are known about adult entertainment on the web.

Your friend committed a _________ when he flooded an internet site with emails and made the website "crash" because the company refused to pay him a bribe.

denial-of-service attack

Cyber criminals who engage in cyber vandalism are often motivated by ___


What is the difference between a computer worm and a Trojan horse?

Computer worms self-replicate, Trojan horses do not.

__________ involves illegal activities of people and institutions whose acknowledged purpose is profit through legitimate business transactions.

White-collar crime

Some identity theft thieves create emails that look legitimate but are designed to gain access to a victim's personal information. This is a/an _________ scheme.


"Ping-ponging, "gang visits," and "steering" are forms of which type of white-collar crime?

health care fraud

One important contemporary change in organized crime is

the interweaving of ethnic groups into the traditional structure.

What is the minimum dollar amount necessary before fraud exists in the crime of tax evasion?

There is no minimum dollar amount.

__________ refers to the rubbing against or touching of a non-consenting adult in a crowd.


Your neighbor obtains sexual pleasure from spying on strangers while they disrobe. This neighbor is a/an


Ethan Nedelmann argues that drugs should be legalized because

the use of mood-altering substances is customary in almost all human societies.

Which issue presents an obstacle to controlling drugs via source control strategies?

These are all issues that present obstacles to controlling drugs via source control strategies.

Problem behavior syndrome contends that

substance abuse is just one of many problem behaviors.

International trafficking in prostitution flourishes. Hundreds of thousands of children and women, primarily from _________, are abducted or lured by the promise of good jobs and, instead, end up in the sex trade in industrialized countries including the United States.

Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe

Attaining sexual pleasure through sexual activity with prepubescent children is referred to as


The __________ Amendment right to free speech makes legal control of pornography quite difficult.


Which of the following statements is accurate?

The line between behaviors that are immoral and those that are criminal are often blurred.

_________is a disturbing behavior whereby men travel overseas to places such as Thailand in order to engage in illicit sexual behavior with young girls who have been sold into prostitution.

Sex tourism

Obscenity is derived from the Latin word caenum that means


Modern commercial sex appears to have its roots in ancient _____ where Solon established licensed brothels in 500 BC.


Tying drug use to factors such as racial prejudice, low self-esteem, poor socioeconomic status, and the high levels of mistrust, negativism, and defiance found in impoverished areas describes whish causal explanation of drug use?

subcultural view

What does research indicate about the effects of legalizing prostitution?

Legalization leads to massive expansion of the trade, both legal and illegal.

Border patrols are examples of ________ strategies aimed at stopping drug use.


The arrest rate for prostitution reveals that the gender ratio is __________ female to male.


The aristocrats of prostitution are _____ who charge customers thousands of dollars per night and who may net over $200,000 per year.

call girls

After World War I, prostitution became associated with ____, and the desire to protect young servicemen from harm helped to end all experiments with legalization in the United States.


Of all the commonly practiced paraphilias, which causes the general public the most concern?


According to legal scholar, Morris, Cohen, why should victimless crimes be criminally prohibited?

Because one of the functions of criminal law is to express the public's shared sense of morality.

According to the theory of social harm, immoral acts can be distinguished from crimes on the basis of the ____they cause.


__________ are behaviors outlawed because they are a threat to the general well-being of society and challenge accepted moral principles.

Public order crimes

Which of the following is a contention of opponents of pornography?

Pornography degrades both the people who are participants and the public who are sometimes forced to see it.

The movement to ban gay marriage in California that led to the passage of Proposition 8 is an example of a/an

moral crusade.

Prostitution is illegal in all states except Nevada where licensed and highly regulated brothels can operate as business enterprises in

rural counties

Prior to the 1960s, U.S. courts exercised little control over the operations of criminal justice agencies. This practice was referred to as the _____ doctrine.


__________ advocates see themselves as protectors of civil rights.

Due process

When the U.S. Supreme Court hands down a/an __________ the ruling influences the everyday operating procedures of police agencies, trial courts, and corrections institutions.

landmark decision

An arrest is legal when an officer believes there is _____ that a crime is or has been committed and that the suspect committed the crime, the officer deprives the suspect of freedom, and the suspect believes she or he is in the custody of the police officer and cannot voluntarily leave.

probable cause

Within the structure of the court system, the prosecutor and the defense attorney are opponents in what is known as the __________ system.


The federal court system has three tiers. Which courts are the trial courts of the federal system?

U.S. district courts

_______ reflects the principle that all offenders who commit the same crime should receive the same sentence.

Determinant sentencing

_________ model states that the overriding purpose of the justice system is to protect the public and deter crime.

The crime control model

Which legal disposition is the most common correctional treatment given to offenders?


Relatively few contacts between police and the public involve police use of physical force, but

there are racial and ethnic differences in the rate at which force is applied.

What does research indicate about the effectiveness of parole?

More than 60% of parolees return to prison within three years of their release.

Advocates of the _____ model feel police, courts, and correctional agencies should concentrate their efforts on diverting law violators out of the formal justice system, thereby helping violators to avoid the stigma of formal crime labels.


District attorneys, state attorneys general and the United States Attorney General are all


Crime control advocates lobby for the abolition of _________, which requires that illegally seized evidence be barred from criminal proceedings.

the exclusionary rule

The pattern of cooperation, between prosecution and defense, that leads to a quick and efficient flow of cases through the court system is referred to as

the courtroom work group.

The public relies on the criminal justice system to provide solutions to crime and to shape the direction of crime policy. Which of the following is NOT a specific function of the criminal justice system?

legislating criminal law

Most states employ a multi-tiered court structure. Which courts try felony offenses?

superior trial courts

Who are the most visible agents of the criminal justice process?


Community policing is a philosophy of policing that requires police officers to become agents of change by working with neighborhood residents to prevent crime. What is known about community policing?

Community policing has lowered neighborhood crime rates.

Because decision making and _____ mark each stage of the system, the criminal justice process serves as a _____ through which a great majority of cases are screened out before trial.

discretion; funnel.

Which of the following orderings most accurately depicts the criminal justice process?

initial contact ® arrest ® adjudication ® disposition

While various philosophies of justice compete for dominance, which models currently capture the support of legislators and the general public?

the crime control and equal justice models

The __________ model embraces the notion that given the proper care and treatment, criminals can be changed into productive, law-abiding citizens.


The term "criminal justice system" became prominent around 1967, when the _____ launched a nationwide study of the nation's crime problem.

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration

Criminologist Joan Petersilia warns that increases in child abuse, family violence, homelessness, and community disorganization are unfortunate consequences of

the 500,000 inmates being released back into society.

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