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why were members of the third estate dissatisfied with life under the old regime?

they had little political power

how did louis XVI's weak leadership contribute to the growing crisis in france?

his extreme spending led the country into deep debt. he didnt cut expenses of him and his queen, and he put off the problem until he had barely any money left. he let political problems get out of hand

how did the purpose of the meeting of the estates-general in 1789 change?

it changed from approving a tax to making the national assembly and end the absolute monarchy. they decided to form a new constitution

what major reforms did the national assembly introduce?

they issued the declaration of the rights of man and the citizen, and reformed the church

what did the divisions in the legislative assembly say about the differences in french society?

they said that the political changes didnt wipe out the deep divisions of the old regime

how did the reign of terror come to an end?

it came to an end when some members of the national convention demanded the arrest ad execution of robespierre. he went to the guillotine and died

how did napoleon become a hero in france?

he led his army to great victories in italy

what did napoleon consider hi greatest triumph in domestic policy?

the napoleonic code

how was napoleon able to control the countries neighboring the french empire?

through puppet rulers and threat of force

how did great britain combat napoleon's naval blockade?

british smugglers would smuggle cargo from britain to europe and the british navy fought the blockade with their own that was much stronger than the french's

why did napoleon have trouble fighting the enemy forces in the peninsular war?

guerillas would ambush french troops and then return into hiding. the british also sent troops to aid the spanish

why was napoleon's delay of the retreat from moscow such a great blunder?

if the retreat had begun in september, the grand army might have exited russia by winter

what were the 3 main points of metternich's plan for europe?

1. prevent future french aggression by surrounding france with strong countries
2. restore a balance of power
3. restore europe's royal families to the thrones

why was the congress of vienna considered a success?

it created a lasting peace in europe that lasted 40 years

what was the long-term legacy of the congress of vienna?

frances power decreased, britain and prussia's power increased, nationalism spread, ideas about basis of power and authority had changed permanently, and more people saw democracy as the preferred governing style. foreign control led to the cause for revolution

how was spanish colonial society structured?

peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, mulattos, slaves, indians

how was the haitian revolution different from revolutions in the rest of latin america?

it was accomplished by slaves

which groups led the quest for mexican independence?

indians and mestizos

how were radicals different from liberals?

radicals wanted a democracy and to change europe government completely, while liberals wanted to limit power to elected parliaments of educated landholders

why did france's third republic fail?

the republic that was established split into 2 sides with different opinions and that led to violence and caused french citizens to turn against radicals. moderates took over

what was the driving force behind russia's industrial expansion?


old regime

the political and social system that existed in france before the french revolution


one of the 3 social classes in france before the french revolution-the 1st estate consisting of the clergy; the 2nd of the nobility; 3rd of the rest of the population

louis XVI

a ruler of france thats extravagant spending sank france into deep debt. he was a weak leader

marie antoinette

louis XIV's wife who was not likes by the french people because of her spending. she always interferred in the government and gave poor advice


an assembly of representatives from all 3 of the estates, or social classes, in france

national assembly

a french congress established by representatives of the 3rd estate on june 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the french people

tennis court oath

a pledge made by the members of france's national assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution

great fear

a wave of senseless panic that spread through the french country side after the storming of the bastille in 1789

why was the fall of the bastille important to the french people?

the bastille symbolized repression under the old regime

what political reforms resulted from the french revolution?

creation of a limited constitutional monarchy with power to create laws and approve or reject declarations of war

what was the reign of terror, and how did it end?

an effort to rid france of "enemies of the revolution"; ended when members of the national convention turned against robespierre and executed him

legislative assembly

a french congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791


a person who leaves their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled france during the peasant uprisings of the french revolution


in the french revolution, a radical group made up of parisian wage earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages


a radical political organization that made governmental changes in september 1792. they took over france and had louis XVI tried for treason and sentenced to death


a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the french revolution

maximilien robespierre

a jacobin leader that slowly gained power and became a dictator of france. his rule became known as the reign of terror

reign of terror

the period, from mid-1794, when maximilien robespierre ruled france nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed

napoleon bonaparte

the general of france's armies. he was on the new government side. he became the dictator

coup d'état

a sudden seizure of political power in a nation


a direct vote in which a countrys people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal


a government-run public school in france


a formal agreement especially are between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of church affairs

napoleonic code

a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for france by napoleon

battle of trafalgar

an 1805 naval battle in which napoleon's forces were defeated by a british fleet under the command of horatio nelson


the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region

continental system

napoleon's policy of preventing trade between great britain and continental europe, intended to destroy great britain's economy


a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country

peninsular war

a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813 in which spanish rebels, with the aid of british forces, fought to drive napoleon's french troops out of spain

scorched-earth policy

the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land


a village in belgium where the hundred days took place, starting on june 18, 1815

hundred days

the brief period during 1815 when napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the french king and again becoming emperor of france

how did napoleon lose to russia to european allies?

russia was too cold-the first loss weakened him and the european allies were too numerous

how did the congress of vienna ensure long term peace in europe?

balance of power worked, mutual-aid agreements among nations helped ensure stability

congress of vienna

a series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the european leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of napoleon

klemens von metternich

the foreign minister of austria. he distrusted the democratic ideals of the french revolution

balance of power

a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others


the hereditary right of a monarch to rule

holy alliance

a league of european nations formed by the leaders of russia, austria, and prussia after the congress of vienna

concert of europe

a series of alliances among european nations in the 19th century, devised by prince klemens vom metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions


in spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in spain


in spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in latin america to spanish parents


persons of mixed european and african ancestry

simón bolívar

a creole general that led the venezuelan army to independence in 1821

jose de san martin

an argentinian creole general that led argentina to declare independence in 1816

miguel hidalgo

a priest from dolores who took the first step towards independence in mexico. he called for a rebellion against the spanish in 1810 called the grito de dolores

jose maria morelos

a leader of mexican rebels who led the revolution for 4 years


in the first half of the 19th century, a european-usually a wealthy landowner or noble-woo wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of europe


in the first half of the 19th century, a european-usually a middle-class business leader or merchant-who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments


in the first half of the 19th century, a european who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people


the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation-that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history-rather than to a king or empire


an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity


the region of south eastern europe now occupied by greece, albania, bulgaria, romania, the european part of turkey, and the former republics of yugoslavia


nephew of napoleon bonaparte won the presidential election in france in 1848. he helped pull france out of poverty

alexander II

nicholas I's son moved russia toward modernization and social change after the crimean war

what caused the creoles in south america to rebel against spain?

they resented the peninsulares' power, they were inspired by the enlightenment, the american and french revolution made them want to do the same, they felt no loyalty to the king of spain

what role did agustin de iturbide play in the independence of mexico?

iturbide initally opposed mexican independence but eventually became its leader

who was dom pedro, and what role did he play in brazil's move to independence?

dom pedro was the ruler of brazil and the son of the portuguese king. he officially declared brazilian independence in 1822

who were simon boliva and jose de san martin?

they were wealthy creoles who helped lead their respective revolutions. simon bolivan was venezuelan and jose de san martin was argentinian

how successful were the revolts of 1848?

the revolts were a failure. by 1849 the conservatives had regained control and europe was back to its pre-1848 status

how did the french accept louis-napoleon as an emperor?

they were tired of instability, they wanted a strong ruler to bring peace


the process of forcing russian culture on ethnic groups in the russian empire

camillo di cavour

sardinia's king's prime minister. he worked to expand piedmont-sardinia's power

giuseppe garibaldi

the leader of a small army of italian nationalists. he united parts of southern italy


strongly conservative members of prussia's wealthy landowning class that supported the view of wilhelm I

otto von bismarck

a conservative junker that wilhelm chose as his prime minister. he was a master of realpolitik


"the politics of reality"-the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism


a german emperor (from the roman title caesar)


an early-19th century movement in art and thought, which focused on emotion and nature rather than reason and society


a 19th-century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be


a movement in 19th-century painting, in which aritsts reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in time

which aging empires suffered from the forces of nationalism?

Austrian, Russian, and Ottoman

what role did garibaldi play in the unification of italy?

he forces took control of sicily and southern italy

what advantages did prussia have in leading the german states to unify?

prussia had a mainly german population and their army was by far the most powerful in central europe. they were industrialized

what was the key element of romanticism?


what characteristics did photography have that made it the art of the industrial age?

its scientific, mechanical, and mass-produced photos

what was the goal of impressionist painters?

to show a single moment in time at a glance

how did nationalism in the 1800s work as a force for both disunity and unity?

-disunity: it broke up centuries-old into nation-states
-unity: it inspired people with the same history, culture, and language to form nation-states

how did camillo di cavour acquire more territory for piedmont-sardinia?

he used careful diplomacy, well-chosen alliances, and cunning

what strategy did otto von bismarck use to make prussia the leader of germany?

he provoked austria and france into separate wars, reasoning that the two wars would unite the german people behind prussia

what are the elements of romanticism?

-mysterious or supernatural
-untamed nature
-simple times, common people
-folk traditions such as music and stories
-radical change

what caused the change from romanticism to realism?

industrialization brought bad working conditions to many who lived in crowded/dirty cities

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